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Sanitation problem in India and Ghana (Essay Sample)

Provide well-written and insightful answers to the following questions. Each essay should be no longer than 2,000 words. Please edit your essays for grammar, flow, and argumentation. Please provide citations, as appropriate, from course material (these will not count in your 2,000 words); use standard citation formats and be consistent. Questions: For a specific urban challenge (economic development, shelter, adequate transportation, sanitation, etc.), concisely summarize and contrast two strategies pursued in different places In the world with attention to the following: How the problem was defined What strategies were adopted What occurred What were the outcomes What actors were involved at each stage To what extent do you see each of the strategies as a success or failure? What lessons can you draw from you summary for (a) the substance or content of planning policy and (b) the planning process? source..
Tutor’s Name
Date: 16/04/2012
Sanitation problem in India and Ghana
The Sanitation problem in India and Ghana is not only an urbanization concern but also an environmental concern. In India, for example, the majority of the population hardly possesses toilets or latrines. The same applies in Ghana. The problem in both India and Ghana is widespread in urban areas causing a serious health crisis. The majority of urban dwellers in India and Ghana defecate openly. Defecating in the open normally defiles the ecology, causes stinking of inhabited areas and gives water a foul smell. As a result, open defecation predisposes people to various waterborne diseases like cholera and dysentery. Research indicates that many children in India and Ghana succumb to waterborne diseases like dysentery annually.
For the case of Ghana, it contains a serious waste management crisis extending from the state to various local municipalities. In addition, wastes of all sizes and shapes are a common feature in most urban centers. These difficulties are complicated and concentrated by population pressures in heavily populated towns like Accra and Kumasi. For example, three quarters of the population in Accra live in low income and heavily populated areas. The sanitary infrastructure in Accra highly reflects the status quo of the people. It is only a small percentage of people that contain toilets that flush. The majority of the population use latrines constructed to accommodate these distinctions. However, these latrines are normally overused as they are shared by very many people (Babat 36).
In both India and Ghana, various strategies have been developed in an attempt to solve the sanitation problems in these countries. Some strategies were similar between the two countries while others were different.
In India, the following strategies are used.
Information, Education and Communication Strategy
This strategy was developed out of a combination of various methods of transferring information and education concerning public health. This strategy was not only used for sanitary services but also for disease outbreak preventions. The materials utilized within this strategy included video screening and recording, audio visual aids, photograph display associated with recommended practices concerning home and personal hygiene. Others included street plays with the developed script from local communicable language. Various organizations including the government and World Health Organization provided funds to ensure implementation of the strategy. This strategy was to create awareness to people on proper disposal methods of human waste and other refuse. The strategy was to motivate the general public to adopt household latrines and establish hygienic practices (Government of Karnataka, 118).
In most cases, it is the responsibility of the urban local authorities to provide sanitation services. On the contrary, there exists a shift...
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