Why Blue Color is Rare in Nature (Research Paper Sample)
1. Please present all work in type-written, double-spaced format. The font should be 12 points, margins should be 1” on all sides.
2. Provide a numbered Annotated Bibliography (does not count towards page minimum or maximum) that: a) lists each of the sources you used to inform your project in a standard citation format (see below); and b) provides a short paragraph summarizing what information/ideas/concepts this source contributed to your project.
3. Reference all ideas that are not your own using your numbered Annotated Bibliography. Both superscripts1 and bracketed  citations are acceptable but use a consistent format.
Why Blue Color is Rare in Nature
According to a worldwide survey conducted by YouGov, blue is the world’s most favorite color. The color blue has intrigued and delighted artists and scientists alike for centuries and is the most popular choice for house paint and jeans. Despite these, blue is a color that is difficult to come by in nature. Animals come in a vast array of colors, but, there are very few that are blue. The blue whale and the blue jay are somewhat blue. But, there are rare and conspicuous creatures with astonishing blue colors, such as parrots, frogs, and butterflies. With an exception to blue, colors in the natural world cover most parts of the spectrum. Why then is this color that is so common in fashion, art, and architecture so rare in nature?
Blue is a rare color in the natural world because most pigments that are visible on animals’ feathers, skin, or fur are related to the food they ingest. Goldfinches derive their yellow color from the yellow flowers they ingest. Salmon derives its pink color from the pink shellfish they ingest. While pigments like yellow, red, orange, and brown come from the food animals ingest, that is not the case with blue.
The way different cultures perceive color varies around the world. Blue is culturally significant in many cultures. In Europe and North America, blue represents power, trust, and security, and is considered placid and soothing. In some countries, blue represents healing and evil repugnance. In Albania, Turkey, Afghanistan, Iran, and Greece, blue eye-carved amulets are believed to safeguard against evil spirits. In Ukraine, blue signifies good health. In Eastern cultures, blue denotes immorality. In Hinduism, blue is associated with Krishna, an embodiment of divine joy and love. In previous centuries, individuals could only produce blue pigments from mineral substances. But, most pigments with other colors were produced from animals or plants. Even though Indigo is derived from plants, the plant itself is not blue, and it needs acid digestion to turn the plant blue.
* Cordy, Ann, and Kwan-nan Yeh. "Blue dye identification on cellulosic fibers: indigo, logwood, and Prussian blue." Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 24.1 (1984): 33-39.
Main Point 1
* Most blue animals we see in nature are not blue. Birds, insects, fish, all these species seem to be blue because of structural color is the color generated from light refraction instead of wavelength reflected light.
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