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Epidemiology Paper: Tuberculosis (Essay Sample)


Write a paper (2,000‐2,500 words) in which you apply the concepts of epidemiology and nursing research to a communicable disease. Refer to "Communicable Disease Chain," "Chain of Infection," and the CDC website for assistance when completing this assignment.
Communicable Disease Selection
Choose one communicable disease from the options below.
Hepatitis B
Epidemiology Paper Requirements
Address the following:
Describe the chosen communicable disease, including causes, symptoms, mode of transmission, complications, treatment, and the demographic of interest (mortality, morbidity, incidence, and prevalence). Is this a reportable disease? If so, provide details about reporting time, whom to report to, etc.
Describe the social determinants of health and explain how those factors contribute to the development of this disease.
Discuss the epidemiologic triangle as it relates to the communicable disease you have selected. Include the host factors, agent factors (presence or absence), and environmental factors. Are there any special considerations or notifications for the community, schools, or general population?
Explain the role of the community health nurse (case finding, reporting, data collection, data analysis, and follow‐up) and why demographic data are necessary to the health of the community.
Identify at least one national agency or organization that addresses the communicable disease chosen and describe how the organizations contribute to resolving or reducing the impact of disease.
Discuss a global implication of the disease. How is this addressed in other countries or cultures? Is this disease endemic to a particular area? Provide an example.
A minimum of three peer‐reviewed or professional references is required.
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide. An abstract is not required.


Epidemiology Paper: Tuberculosis
Name of Student
Institution Affiliation
Epidemiology Paper: Tuberculosis
1.0. Introduction
Tuberculosis is one of the oldest viral diseases and is still one of the most dangerous among the communicable infectious diseases in the world. Up to one-third of the world's population suffering from communicable diseases is infected with this virus, and up to 5 thousand people die in the world every day. The World Health Organization (WHO) is taking measures to eradicate tuberculosis from different regions, while it is evident to refuse vaccination in the countries where the incidence is low. Tuberculosis remains an essential task of the health community as a whole that influences the main directions and development of global public health diseases. The WHO tuberculosis statistics are used while developing strategies and programs to combat this disease and assess their effectiveness and presentation of results in publications. The rationale for conducting this research is to emphasize the global epidemic of tuberculosis disease, demonstrating its causes, symptoms, mode of transmission, complications, and treatment. The paper primarily focuses on the demographics of the disease, underlying social determinants, epidemiologic triangle, role of community health nurses, national agencies involved, and the global implication of this disease. The epidemiology of tuberculosis has remained an issue of concern for the global health system. Despite the implementation of different preventive measures, this communicable disease is still widespread.
2.0. Discussion
2.1. Tuberculosis 
The tuberculosis is an infectious and contagious disease in which the microorganism attacks and invades the lung of the infected person, though this disease may occur in other parts of the body as well, such as bones and kidney (Hallensleben, de Vries, Lettinga, & Scherpbier, 2016). The causative microorganism for this disease is Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
2.1.1 Causes
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that spreads by airborne droplets, that is, by inhalation of the patient’s sputum particles. Therefore, a person can only get exposure to an organism from a patient with an open form of tuberculosis. The initiation of infection does not mean that there will be a distinct disease, which, as a rule, begins with the first complex in the lung. If the immune system functions normally, then the infection remains dormant for life and does not affect the carrier (Seo, Kim, Hwang, Hong, & Lee, 2016). The primary tuberculosis complex develops when the tubercle bacillus in the lung begins to multiply and forms a lesion in the lung tissue, then spread to the nearest lymph nodes. It is not necessary that explicit tuberculosis develops immediately after infection, as it may occur later. In a small number of cases, the disease develops from the first complex, but in adults, it is often a sizeable pulmonary process, although tuberculosis can occur in any organ, such as the kidneys, bones or lymph nodes.
2.1.2 Symptoms
Patients with tuberculosis usually present complaints that concern them for at least a month, and the symptoms worsen over time. Since pulmonary tuberculosis is most often the case, patients will most likely complain about coughing and occasionally hemoptysis, i.e., blood in the sputum. Symptoms of a more advanced process are weight loss, loss of appetite, and night sweats. Almost all patients with pulmonary tuberculosis show changes on the chest radiograph, they are usually located in the upper lobes, although now the typical picture of pulmonary tuberculosis is less common. In case of severe infection, several lung lobes may be affected, and an increase in the intra-thoracic lymp...

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