Microbiology: Codon During Protein Production (Coursework Sample)
ANSWER ANY THREE QUESTIONS
1. Using the following list of codons describe, using diagrams etc., how information stored in the DNA is translated into a peptide. Be sure to discuss all steps. In other words, use a diagram and give me sequences, transcription and translation steps. Show the sequences of the sense and the other DNA strand, the mRNA and the tRNA’s.
UUU -phenylalanine UCU -serine AUG –initiation/methionine
CUU -leucine ACU -threonine
GUU -valine UAA -Termination
2. a. What is a mutation in molecular terms?
b. If a mutation deletes a base in the genomic DNA discuss how that will affect the reading frame and expression product production.
3. a. Discuss, using the lactose operon, how induction controls enzyme synthesis.
b. Discuss, using the tryptophane operon and how the levels of a key metabolite (tryptophane) controls gene function.
4. a. If you knew the amino acid sequence of a peptide could you use that information to find the gene in a pool of genomic DNA. If so, how might you do this.
b. How does a cell recognize which strand is the sense strand? How does the RNA polymerase enzyme actually know where to start making a message? How about stopping?
5. a. Discuss three ways that bacteria can transfer DNA between cells horizontally.
b. What is the difference between lytic and lysogenic viral replication?
6. Define/identify: codon, anti-codon, transcription, translation, helicase, restriction enzyme topoisomerase, PCR, RNA interference.
You are to answer all questions fully. Any reference material you used should be noted. That would be the textbook chapter and page(s), your notes, any URLs from sites you browsed on the internet.
I would say that most of the reference should from the textbook and notes. All the reference should be solid.source..
An Assignment Submitted by
Name of Student
Name of Establishment
Class XXXX, Section XXXX, Fall 2011
Define/identify: codon, anti-codon, transcription, translation, helicase, restriction enzyme topoisomerase, PCR, RNA interference
During protein production, a codon is the stop sign and it consists of three RNA/DNA nucleotides matching with particular amino acids (Shaik et al, 2016, 212).
During protein production in ribosomes, an anticodon consists of three nucleotides bases in transfer RNA that recognize particular amino acids then binds with the matching codon found in messenger RNA.
Transcription is the procedure where the data that a DNA strands contains replicates into a fresh molecule of mRNA.
During protein production translation is the procedure where mRNA molecules covert into a chain of amino acids
A helicase is an enzyme that brings together and even reshapes nucleic acids and their protein complexes (Furuichi, 2015, 50).
A restriction enzyme is a bacteria-produced protein that defends it against bacteriophages through shredding of the phage's DNA material during infection.
Topoisomerase are a group of enzymes that regulate the coiling and uncoiling of DNA to extend or to shorten them during transcription and replication
A PCR, also known as a Polymerase chain reaction is a method applied to multiply specific DNA/RNA segments for analysis
RNA interference is a procedure where RNA molecules restrain gene conversion into amino acids through counterbalancing of pursued mRNA molecules
Discuss three ways that bacteria can transfer DNA between cells horizontally
There are three ways in which bacteria transmits their DNA horizontally i.e. conjugation, transduction and transformation
Conjugation involves the straight conveyance of DNA from a cell to the next via their mutual contact. This is often achieved through the injection of plasmids that duplicate within a bacterial cells without involving chromosomes (Das & Dash, 2014, 114).
When dead bacteria split open and discharge genetic material, other bacteria can absorb this material directly and assimilate it into their DNAs in a process called transformation.
Transduction is the viral transfer of DNA material between cells caused by bacteriophages, a group of viruses that can hijack bacterial cells to facilitate their own reproduction within the host. This continues until the phage virus particles become too many and overwhelm the host which bursts in a procedure called lyses (Clark & Pazdernik, 2012, 793).
What is the difference between lytic and lysogenic viral replication?
The lytic and lysogenic viral replication
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