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Literature & Language
Research Paper
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School Start Times Literature & Language Research Paper (Research Paper Sample)


1. What topic are you interested in? Late school start time
2. Potentially, what do you think your main argument will be about that topic? Make sure others could disagree with you. Schools start school at 8 am, which is too early for both teachers and students.
3. Potentially, what side will you take on the issue you would like to focus on? I think schools should start later.


World Literature Research Paper 1 World Literature and Composition Argument Research Paper Steps & Due Dates: Due Dates: (Each section will be worth points toward your overall "Oral/Written Assignments" grade for the second semester. You may work ahead if you choose, but please be aware that specific requirements will be addressed when each section is officially "assigned" in class.) ● (DUE: T. 1/28 & W. 1/29) Choose a Topic & Begin Researching (you must get your topic approved by me; last day to change your topic: W. 2/5 & Th. 2/6) ● (DUE: W. 2/5 & Th. 2/6) Research Sources (Bring at least 4 Sources to class for discussion & Submit Titles and URL links on Canvas) ● (DUE: W. 2/12 & Th. 2/13) Thesis & Outline (3+ sources used must be documented on Works Cited) ● (DUE: W. 2/19 & Th. 2/20) Pages 1-3 (3+ Sources Used on Works Cited) ● (DUE: Th. 2/27 & F. 2/28) Pages 1-6 (6+ Sources Used on Works Cited) ● (DUE: T. 3/10 & W. 3/11 ) Full Rough Draft (Pages 1-8; 8+ Sources Used on Works Cited; Submit to & Bring Digital Copy OR Printed Copy for Peer Edit) ● (DUE: T. 3/24 & W. 3/25 ) Final Draft (Submit to AND Bring Printed Copy) Assignment Overview: The purpose of this assignment is to prepare you for collegiate level research and argument. You will choose a topic, develop a thesis, perform research, refine your thesis, and ultimately draft a research paper taking and defending a specific stance on your chosen topic. You must ARGUE a position--no fence sitting. You also must consider and refute counter-arguments as part of your paper. The quality of your topic, research, and writing will all factor into your final grade. What is a Research Paper? Please Read Genre and the Research Paper (Argumentative) World Literature Research Paper 2 Assignment Specifics & Requirements: Choose a particular cultural, societal, or political issue of sufficient breadth to allow meaningful research but sufficiently focused to allow in-depth analysis. The issue should be debatable such that reasonable people could disagree with your position. Your issue may but does not have to be controversial. ● The research paper includes the following: ○ 8-11 FULL Pages (NOT including Works Cited) ■ If your paper is not eight pages, you will lose points. Seven and a half is not sufficient. ○ Argument ■ Introduce precise, knowledgeable claims, establish the significance of the claims, distinguish the claims from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claims, counter arguments, reasons, and evidence. ■ You must include at least 1 counter argument and rebuttal. ○ MLA Formatting ■ Heading, Header, Title, etc. ■ Works Cited Page ■ In-Text Citations for ALL Sources ○ 8 Sources ■ 4 credible “print” sources (Your “print” sources can literally be printed, such as a book from the library, OR they may be print-equivalent resources retrieved online so long as they are not solely internet-based) ● Books, E-books, JSTOR articles, Newspaper Articles such as New York Times, TIME, etc.) ■ 4 other credible sources of your choice (see resources for determining credible sources) ● Credible websites or additional “print-equivalent” sources The CLHS JStor account may be accessed off campus using the username “CLHS” and password “researchers”. **For Internet sources, you must provide a link on your works cited page. For all sources, your MLA in-text citations and works cited entries should be perfect. Final Draft Late Policy: ● Late research papers will lose one letter grade per day late (regardless of block color) World Literature Research Paper 3 ● A paper submitted without a Works Cited Page or without in-text parenthetical citations will earn an automatic zero. ● Even if you are absent, you must submit your paper on the due date to show its completion: ○ If you have been too sick to complete the paper, provide a doctor's note and email the portion completed via email by the due date: Plagiarism Reminder: see link to syllabus Plagiarism is one form of academic dishonesty particularly relevant to English classes. Unless the material is appropriately cited and/or quoted, copying from electronic or print sources, copying from your own past assignments, and/or copying from another student’s assignment are all forms of plagiarism. Importantly, you may not submit one of your own assignments from another class to this class without your teacher’s advance permission. Additionally, you may not pass off another source as your own by merely changing a few words--that is still plagiarism. Any ideas or words you paraphrase must be cited. Printing Reminder: ● Crean Lutheran HS has a student printer available to students at the front desk free of charge. Highly consider taking advantage of this resource. The Research Paper: The Writing Process ● Read RP: The Writing Process Overview Step 1: Selecting a Topic In order to choose an appropriate topic, you should conduct preliminary online research to see what materials are available and what positions other people take with respect to your potential issue. When choosing your research topic, you should make sure you select something that is: 1. Debatable (you can take and defend a specific stance; others can reasonably disagree with you) 2. Narrow (it is specific enough and not too broad) 3. Researchable (by doing preliminary research - it is apparent that many credible sources are available on your specific topic) 4. Manageable (you can handle the chosen topic given the requirements of the paper) 5. Interesting (you don’t want to be bored writing it; choose something that interests you) Potential Topics: ● The following are a list of topics. You are not limited to these options. Please read through, do some preliminary research, and develop your argument surrounding a specific topic of your choice. ● Your claims will be supported by facts and evidence from EIGHT Credible Sources. 1. Environmental: World Literature Research Paper 4 ■ Is Global Warming a Hoax? ■ If global warming is real, is it caused mainly by human activity? How harmful is it likely to be? If caused mainly by human activity, and likely to be very harmful, what can we do about it? ■ Hybrid cars are an effective strategy to fight pollution. 2. Educational: ■ The student loan crisis. ■ The College Myth: Is college necessary to be successful? 3. Ethical: ■ Euthanasia ■ Animal Rights/Experimentation ■ Death Penalty 4. Political: ■ Donald Trump’s impeachment: justified or not? ■ Arms Control (Gun Control-Background Checks; Gun Shows; Federal Laws; Guns in schools; Should teachers be armed?; Right to bear arms) ■ Immigration Reform: What are the civil rights of illegal immigrants coming to the US? What is the obligation the US has to immigrants? What threats are posed to the US’ security and the economy? ■ Federal Minimum Wage should be increased. 5. Societal: ■ Gender Bias and Its Impact on Education, Business, Politics, and/or Society. ■ Stress and depression among college students. ■ Social Acceptance of smoking (cigarettes/ vaping) and its harmful effects ■ Cyber Security 6. Technological: ■ What is the impact of social media and mental health? 7. Other Topics... ● Once you pick your topic, brainstorm a list of at least 20 answers to the following two questions and allow these to lead your research, and ultimately your argument: ○ What would I like to know? ○ What do readers need to know? World Literature Research Paper 5 Step #2: Finding and Selecting Sources The CLHS JStor account may be accessed off campus using the username “CLHS” and password “researchers”. OR log in with Google and your student email. ● Credible Sources ○ Do the activities on Finding Credible Sources. ○ Read Finding Sources. (links within - click and scroll down - to fantastic online resources like JSTOR, Microsoft Academic Search,, etc.) ○ Read Conducting Research and follow the menu to the left. ○ Read Source Credibility ● Find a minimum of EIGHT credible sources pertaining to your thesis. ○ 4 credible “print” sources (Your “print” sources can literally be printed, such as a book from the library, OR they may be print-equivalent resources retrieved online so long as they are not solely internet-based) ■ Books, E-books, JSTOR articles, Newspaper Articles such as New York Times, TIME, etc.) ○ 4 other credible sources of your choice (see resources for determining credible sources) ■ Credible websites or additional “print-equivalent” sources ● Keep track of your credible source information and the quotes and/or paraphrases from each source by copying and pasting the URL link into your research paper document. ○ You can also use Source Cards. ● Integrating Quotes: ○ Some Helpful Resources: ■ “What are In-Text Citations” Video ■ “MLA Style: In-Text Citations (8th Ed., 2016)” ■ How Do I Incorporate In-Text Citations? PDF ○ Blend all quotes. ■ Smoothly introduce each quote with context (Who is the speaker? Where is this quote coming from? Etc…) ○ Stay in present tense. ■ Change quotes as needed and bracket [ ] changes. ○ Cite carefully. ■ Sources are cited differently based on what info you have about them. World Literature Research Paper 6 Step #3: Organization & Outline ● The RP: Organization (How to Start?) ● Choose from the following templates: ○ Outline #1 (very detailed) ○ Outline #2 (alphanumeric outline) ● Create your research question: Your eventual answer will form your thesis statement. ○ How to create a research question? ● Outline the entire paper. ○ Describe all of the different sections. How will you organize each subtopic of your paper? How will you support your argument? What counter arguments will you address? How will you include the counterarguments (before subtopics throughout the paper, or as a separate paragraph near the end of the paper?) ● How you organize the essay is up to you, just make sure it makes sense. ● Here are some other methods… ○ Outline Components, How to Outline, Types of Outlines ● A couple of suggestions in terms of formatting: ○ You can choose to organize your paper question by question. ○ You can organize your paper by proofs (major reasons your argument is correct). ○ Don’t forget to talk about the opposing view’s counter arguments. ○ Don’t forget to rebut/refute those counter arguments. ○ Don’t forget to talk about implications for society - are there solutions? What roadblocks might prevent the solutions? How can those issues be addressed? ○ Don’t forget to tell the reader the importance of the matter and what it means for our future, etc. ● Possible lengths… ○ 1 Page = Introduction (the first page is shorter because of the heading and title) ○ ½ page-1 Page = Explaining the main issue/ controversy/ background information ○ 1 Page = First proof/ subtopic/ question/ examples ○ 1 Page = Second proof/ subtopic/ question/ examples ○ 1 Page = Third proof/ subtopic/ question/ examples ○ 1 Page = Fourth proof /subtopic/ question/ examples ...etc. ○ 1 Page = counter argument/s, rebuttal/s, solutions, implications, etc. ○ ½ - 1 Page = Conclusion World Literature Research Paper 7 Step #4: THE LEAD AND THESIS STATEMENT ● Writing Leads ● Experiment with multiple leads. ● Make sure your thesis statement is there at the end of your lead. ○ Create a thesis for your paper that expresses a distinct, arguable opinion about your chosen topic. ○ In particular, you want to avoid making a generic, universal statement that everyone would agree with. ■ Something like "Abraham Lincoln was a great man who changed American history because he freed the slaves" would not make a good thesis because there's nothing that needs to be proven in that statement. ● Use the topic prompt to guide your thesis statement. Set up an argument you are going to fully flesh out in the body paragraphs. ○ The body paragraphs MUST follow whatever order you set up in the thesis statement. ● Tips for Writing a Thesis Statement Step #5: BODY PARAGRAPHS ● Discuss the subtopics listed in the same order as your thesis. ● You need at least one citation per body paragraph, but more is recommended. ● Your paper may not be worthy of an A without providing greater depth in your research and analysis. While your thesis may lay out the bare bones of the body sections, you will obviously need to fully flesh out the subtopics with multiple paragraphs. See Outline Templates for further information. World Literature Research Paper 8 Argument Research Paper Rubric ___/ 5 MLA Formatting All MLA formatting is correct including the header, running header/pagination, title, margins, spacing, and in-text citations. ___/10 Spelling, Grammar, Punctuation, and Style All spelling, grammar, and punctuation are correct. There is an academic voice, which includes maintaining a third-person, present tense narrative. Great papers will also be written in an active voice (not passive voice). Potential flaws include: first person voice, contractions, lack of sentence variation, run-ons, poor word choice, overly wordy sentences, etc. ___/10 The Introduction and Thesis Statement The lead captures the attention of the reader. It clearly introduces the angle/opinion/argument of the paper. Includes a well-written thesis statement that expresses a unique and arguable opinion and sets forth the main points to be discussed in the body paragraphs. The thesis statement is the last 1-2 sentences of the introduction. ___/30 Essay/Paragraph Structure and Organization All paragraphs include topic and concluding sentences, paragraphs employ appropriate transitions, and the paper satisfies the assignment length of 8-11 pages. The paper follows a logical organization with an appropriate argument flow. ___/30 Essay Argument & Content Paper position is fully-developed, including at least 1 counter-argument and rebuttal. All significant issues are addressed in a satisfactory manner. Paper exhibits an appropriate balance between research and original thought—incorporating quotes as appropriate. All paragraphs include citations for research sources. Citations should be included for paraphrasing, quotations and specific examples where appropriate. Body of paper supports all parts of the thesis statement and does not wander on tangents. ___/5 The Closing Appropriately reemphasizes argument position and provides closure. A creative and interesting closing gets the point across to the reader without just summarizing and repeating prior information. The final sentence is impactful. May comment on argument significance, subject relevance, or future implications. Restatement of thesis is NOT the last sentence. ___/10 Works Cited & Research Quality The Works Cited Page follows MLA format. All research sources are credible. Paper includes citations from all 8 sources. ___/100 TOTAL GRADE


Students Name
Professors Name
Course Code and Name
School Start Times
Learning is one of the most important aspects of a person's life. It is through learning that people can build their career paths and, in turn, earn a living to sustain their families. The current school curriculum allows schools to start at 8 am, and it is believed that this decision was made based on the best interest of teachers and students. However, this is not always the case since it leaves people with inadequate time to work on personal matters. Therefore, the curriculum should allow schools to start later to curb the various challenges that teachers and students have been facing as a result of schools starting at 8 am. Such challenges make it difficult for both parties to effectively perform their duties. Starting schools later would allow teachers and students enough time to sleep and balance their school and home activities.
Schools should start later to help reduce the various health-related issues that occur due to the lack of enough sleep. Most teachers have families to take care of, and therefore, they end up sleeping late at night. Therefore, if they are supposed to be at school at 8 am, then they would have to wake up early to prepare. Such is an indication that they would hardly get to sleep the recommended eight hours. The lack of enough sleep can result in various health issues such as diabetes and heart diseases. An individual's health is the most important thing about their life and should, therefore, not be disrupted. The same case applies to students since they mostly have assignments to work on after school.

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