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Literature & Language
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English (U.S.)
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Topic:

Anthropology (Essay Sample)

Instructions:
this paper should be based on 3 article that i will attach to this order and the citations is only an \\\"intext citations.\\\" here is the prompt: Among many high altitude populations there have been observations of delayed growth in stature. Some researchers (e.g. Frisancho) have argued that delayed growth in stature is an adaptation to high energy requirements and low oxygen availability. Others (e.g. Leonard) argue that poor nutrition, rather than low oxygen, is responsible for the patterns of slow growth. Briefly summarize key pieces of evidence supporting each claim. In each case, does slow growth represent an adaptation? If so, how is the term adaptation being used? How has, or how should, adaptive claims be tested? Is it possible to disentangle the effects of nutrition and low oxygen on physical growth? summarise the papers and critique of it that are attached. source..
Content:
ADAPTATION 1
HIGH ALTITUDE ADAPTATION
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Topic: Anthropology
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ADAPTATION 2
The article Ecological Interpretation of Postnatal Growth at High Altitude by A. Roberto Frisancho explains the factors influencing both functional and physical growth of persons living in high altitude regions. According to the study conducted it had been established that in high altitude regions functional organs growth was fast while physical growth was a bit slow. The difference in growth rates between functional and physical in such populations was explained as a result of adaptation to the harsh conditions in the high altitude environment.
High altitude regions have low oxygen levels, extreme low temperatures at times as well as high boy energy consumptions. Growth and development of humans is influenced by both the genes and the prevailing external conditions. Despite the altitudinal influence on the linear growth and maturation, nutritional and socioeconomic factors as well influence growth as it is demonstrated through the difference of the African and Peruvian populations. When compared to inhabitants at sea levels exposed to similar nutritional status, it was observed that high altitude populations exhibited retarded physical growth in all areas that is height and weight, sexual maturation as well as skeletal maturation when compared to inhabitants at sea levels. However, this differentiation was absent for the African population.
According to the article with regard to functional growth that is chest size and the volume of the lungs it has been found that persons living in high altitude environments have a wider chest compared to persons living at sea level zones, and also high altitude populations have a bigger lung volume as well in comparison to persons at low altitudes. This could be attributed to the adjustments in coping with the low oxygen levels (Frisancho, 1976; Frisancho, 1977).
Genetic factors have been found to have little influence on adaptation. It has also been found that the nutritional requirements for persons at high altitudes are high compared to persons at sea level (Gursky, 1969; Mazes and Baker, 1964; Picon-raetegui, 1976). This is explained due to the high metabolic rates at high altitudes in order to maintain body systems equilibrium.
Though physical growth has been found to vary between persons living at high altitudes when compared to persons living at sea levels, apart from adaptations to the harsh climatic conditions, other factors could be contributing to these variations. When subjected to higher nutritional levels, populations in high altitudes would demonstrate similar growth patterns with those living at sea levels. Hence nutrition as well contributes to the physical growth of individuals.
William R. Leonard in his article Nutritional Determinants of High Altitude Growth in...
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