Simulation-War Powers: President and Congress (Essay Sample)
Use formal writing style and Chicago style when applicable.
The paper requires you to integrate your simulation experience with a variety of course concepts. For example, part of the paper may ask you to describe conflicts between the President and Congress in the War Powers simulation and relate these to the way the Constitution defines (or leaves ambiguous) the foreign policy powers of each branch of government.
Please choose one prompt and answer. Your response should be between 4 and 5 pages double-spaced, with citations and proper formatting.
What “war powers” (both explicit and implied) does the Constitution give to the president? To Congress? Be specific, citing the exact language. How might some of this language be viewed as ambiguous (especially for limited military intervention) and responsible for disagreements between the president and Congress in the realm of war powers? How did these disagreements play out in your simulation? Be specific, citing presidential actions, legislation, and arguments as relevant.
In the arena of foreign policy, the president has historically been the dominant actor, with Congress often simply deferring to presidential wishes. What are the domestic political, practical, and national security related reasons why Congress would routinely defer to the president? What examples from your simulation illustrate these dynamics? Evaluate the validity of these reasons: which ones (if any) justify presidential dominance, and which ones (if any) don’t?
In your simulation, did the executive branch behave as a unitary rational actor, or did you find organizational interests and bureaucratic politics affecting decisions? (If you were not a member of the executive branch, you may need to speak with students who were
playing these roles to get their insights). Give specific examples from the simulation to support your claims.
What civil rights and liberties are guaranteed in the 4th, 5th, and 6th amendments to the Constitution? What kinds of surveillance and counterterrorism policies are potentially in tension with these liberties? (Be specific, citing examples from your simulation). If you were a national security policymaker, how would you resolve these tensions
What Constitutionally based checks and balances did you observe between the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government in this simulation? For example, were there cases in which one actor (e.g., the president) was trying to accomplish something but was blocked by another actor due to these institutional rules? What checks and balances seemed to be particularly important in shaping outcomes in your simulation? Did any of these seem too strong or weak? If so, what are the implications for the U.S. system of government?
In your simulation, how much effort, time, and resources did the president and members of Congress devote to their reelection campaigns? What kinds of strategies did they use to try to increase their approval ratings and win reelection? What factors seemed particularly important in driving gains and losses in candidates’ approval ratings? Which of these factors were within their control or beyond their control?
In what ways can the news media shape the national debate and affect public approval of specific political leaders and policies? Think about both (a) the media’s decisions regarding what topics/events to cover and (b) the media’s decisions regarding how to cover these topics. Give specific examples from your simulation of ways the news media influenced political outcomes or failed to do so.
When citizens decide to vote for their preferred Presidential candidate, they are supposed to understand what they are electing them to do. Article II of the United States Constitution stipulates the responsibilities and the entitlement of the President. Political power can be misused when placed in the hands of the wrong person. That is why the President is usually limited and his powers controlled by branches of the government. This means that he is not given all power at once. Instead, the powers are separated and balanced to make sure a certain branch of the government is not too powerful. It is important to understand the difference between the President and the presidency. The President is the one who occupies the Presidential position while the presidency is the role that is governed by the rules in the constitution.
The capabilities and the strengths of the President, among other qualities, are great determinants for a successful tenure. Presidents in most countries are given control over both the armed forces like the navy and the army. The President is therefore referred to as the Commander in Chief of the armed forces. The same constitution, in the article I and section 8, allows Congress to declare combat. This means that there has to be maximum cooperation between the two parties to make sure that there are no disagreements. In doing so, Congress will fund and declare the war while the President is directing it. Despite all these rules and regulations, Presidents have been involved in military operations without the approval of Congress. An example is the Vietnam War and the Korean War, to mention a few. The essay discusses the war powers given to the President and Congress by the Constitution of the United States.
The President-elect to take an oath before getting into office. Most people do not understand what is associated with being the Commander in Chief. As a result, questions arise on whether the President has the permission to use the military forces without the Congress declaring war and the extent of such powers. Throughout American history, there have been multiple conflicts and debates arising from such questions. Different scholars also have different views on the amount of power held by the President in addition to the power that the person in the Presidential position will be handed over by the constitution. The administrations of Presidents Johnson and Kennedy spent almost ten years sending the US troops to South Eastern Asia without approval from Congress (Waxman, 2018). As a result, Congress passed the War Powers Resolution in the year 1973.
The War Powers Resolution obliges the President to inform the Congress of any internment of the troops within 48 hours. To add on, the President is also required to extract all the troops in 60 days, in cases where the Congress has not allowed an extension. After the resolutions were passed, the Congress intended to get back the eroded ability to participate in decisions that invo
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