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PCN-527 Anti Psychotic Medications Research Assignment (Essay Sample)


There are 8 questions on Anti psychotic medications and how it works on the brain and diagnosing. Professor wants 4 peer reviewed journal articles I need in-text- citations and a reference page .I have added chapters 13 & 15 you may or may not need chapter 13 but chapter 15 in on schizophrenia and that is a part of psychotic I think. One of the references must be the book. I have also added the 8 questions. On questions 1-7 give me the 75 words question 8(25) words on use the 25 words on the easier question


Anti-Psychotic Medications
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All generations of antipsychotic drugs have an effect on D2 receptors. However, the first generations have different degrees of blocking the D2 receptors which result in their activity reduction. The second generation differs in a way that they block D4 receptors more than D2 receptors, the drugs also prevent the working of a certain type of serotonin receptor. The third generation drugs do not necessarily block the D2 receptors but instead, they modulate them resulting in varying functioning (Charles L. Levinthal, 2016).
The current antipsychotics work on the brain by modulating the D2 receptors. In the case when neural pathways have low dopamine activity, a situation referred to as hypodopaminergic, Abilify increases the D2 receptors functioning. On the other hand, when the neural pathways have high dopamine activity, a situation called hyperdopaminergic, it reduces the functioning of D2 receptors. This description, therefore, implies that Abilify balances the activity of dopamine receptors subtypes. Furthermore, the current anti-psychotic drugs have an additional characteristic of preventing serotonin receptors (Levinthal, 2016).
The three generations of drugs to treat depression have a similarity of affecting serotonin brain levels. The result of controlling serotonin and norepinephrine is relieving the depressed patient. However, all the generations have different ways of attaining the task. The first generation drugs have tricyclic antidepressants and Monoamine oxidase inhibitors which help in increasing the brain levels of both serotonin and norepinephrine. The second-generation antidepressants have different chemical properties. These drugs selectively inhibit serotonin uptake hence resulting in its increased action at the receptors. The third generation drugs inhibit the reuptake of both serotonin and norepinephrine (Gary Remington, 2014).
The current medications to treat depression work on the brain by slowing down norepinephrine and serotonin synapses reuptake. The slowing down of norepinephrine and serotonin synapses enables the neurotransmitter molecules to stay on the site of a receptor for a much longer period because the process of reuptake allows reabsorption of neurotransmitter molecules from receptor sites to neurone. Consequently, there is intense stimulation of receptors because tricyclic drugs increase the level of activity of both serotonin and nephrine. Third generation medication for depression affect all the neurotransmitters hence highly recommended for some patients (Suzanne LeVert, 2007).
The three most used medications for substance use disorders are the full agonist, partial agonist and antagonistic drugs. Full agonists have an effect of directly stimulating the sites of receptors in the brain and they work as replacements of the drugs abused. Partial agonists have a different degree of stimulating the receptors but still act as agonists and are used for detoxification. To avoid withdrawals and cravings on the side of the patient, agonists are taken on a daily basis. On the other hand, antagonists do not stimulate the receptor but rather bind it hence stops binding of agonists (Antoine Douaihy, Thomas Kelly and Carl Sullivan, 2013).
Some medications can be risky to prescribe to patients who have substance use disorder. One of them is Methadone which is used to individuals addicted to opiates. The drug can cause fatal results in the case of overdose and also increases the risk of dangerous diseases of the liver. The drug can also be diverted to illegal trafficking instead of the intended uses. Another risky medication is naltrexone since it causes retention of medication. Besides, naltrexone can be risky to patients using opioids since it precipitates acute syndrome of withdrawal (Douaihy et al., 2...
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