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6 pages/≈1650 words
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Literature & Language
Annotated Bibliography
English (U.S.)
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Plastic Pollution: Biological Environment (Annotated Bibliography Sample)


The work you complete for your annotated bibliography will serve as a direct foundation for your final research project. In this way, it should help you further define your scholarly conversation and the specific contribution you would like to make to it by the conclusion of the semester. 


Annotated Bibliography: Plastic Pollution
Plastic pollution entails the accumulation of plastic products whether used or unused to the environment that has adverse effects on the marine life, soil, and the biological environment. Living organisms especially those living in water when ingesting these plastics and its contents such as chemicals may cause them death. Soil microbial activities are barricaded, chemicals introduced in the soil may cause the soil to be more alkaline or acidic hence making the soil unproductive for agricultural produce. Plastics are of a distinct group made up of compounds derived from petroleum known as petrochemicals. Its production has increased globally, yet very small amounts are recycled. This is the main reason as to why plastic pollution is a common problem both on land, water, and air.
Reisser J, Shaw J, Wilcox C, Hardesty BD, Proietti M, Thums M, et al. Marine Plastic Pollution in Waters around Australia: Characteristics, Concentrations, and Pathways. PLoS ONE 8(11): e80466, 2013.
The article notes the process by which marine plastic pollution happens. The authors reveal that the process of plastic pollution happens when plastic particles are either deposited on land causing land pollution. According to the authors, marine plastic pollution happens when plastics are disposed into the open environment; they are carried into the marine environment through various ways for instance through storm drains, wind and even flooding. At the point, the plastics can either float at the surface of the sea or ocean or even sink to the seabed depending on the density of the polymers they are made from. The article further elaborates that lightweight plastics may be deposited towards the shore by the onshore winds or may be in the same way entering the ocean hence piling in the convergence zones. Additionally, the article expounds that plastic particle finds themselves into water bodies due to the fact that most of the plastic products are manufactured in small sizes. The authors expound that the water bodies have microplastics which have undergone the process of disintegration to form smaller particles by the mechanical or biological process. The article is relevant since it mentions the adverse effects of the plastic pollution on both marine vertebrates and marine birds. It explains the way marine water is polluted by the plastic debris which then affects aquatic animals. The article is relevant for my research because it explains the degree to which plastic pollution is dangerous to both aquatic and terrestrial life.
Abduall, Jalil & Mian Nannu. "Using plastic bags and its damaging impacts on environment and Agriculture." International Conference on Sustainable Development, 2011.
In the article, the authors mainly focused on the damaging impact of plastic bags on the environment and agriculture. When plastic bags are disposed of without care of recycling, they ultimately find a way into agricultural fields whereby they are mixed with the soil through other decomposed materials. This debris does not decompose in the soil thereby remaining as obstacles. Such materials cause growth retardation of agricultural plants. The author further illustrates how plastic bags become a hindrance to the roots of plants in the soil. They have innate properties that block the roots of plants to break through them in search of nutrients. The author posits that it takes a great deal of time for plastic bags to decompose, approximately not less than 1000 years. This hinders the degradation of materials around and within it. In such a scenario, the soil losses its fertility property causing plants to look emaciated because agricultural plants can rarely survive on plastic bags. This is as a resul...

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