HIST/STS124: History of Western Medicine. Gevitz/ Riley analysis paper (Essay Sample)
Guidelines for Article Analysis Papers1. Every paper must be:a. Typedb. Double-spacedc. 1-inch marginsd. Times or Times New Roman font size 122. To be included in the top right or left-hand corner of the first page (single-spaced):a. Nameb. Datec. Course Number3. Every paper must include a title (be creative!)4. Paper length: 1-2 pages5. Required content:a. Introductory paragraphi. Provide a brief explanation of the article(s) you are analyzing and identify the author’s main focus/argumentb. Body paragraphsi. Examine specific examples from the text that appear to be of particular significance or interestc. Conclusion paragraphI recommend you incorporate a few (2-3) direct quotes that serve as examples from the reading to support your analysis – think of quotes as evidence that will strengthen your points. However, do not let quotes speak for themselves, or fill your paper with overly long quotes – follow quoted material with further analysis or explanation. Be sure to put direct quotes in quotation marks and provide proper citation (either a page number in parentheses at the end of the sentence or in a footnote). paper need references !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
HIST/STS 124: History of Western Medicine
COURSE DESCRIPTION & OBJECTIVES: This course covers major themes in the history of medicine and disease in human societies from the time of the Agricultural Revolution to the present day. In examining the impact of disease on populations across the globe, we will also consider the ways in which people have sought to study, prevent, and cure afflictions of both the body and mind. By the end of the semester, students will understand the myriad ways in which disease and the study of medicine has had an impact on societies throughout time; will be able to understand the difference between endemic, epidemic, and pandemic diseases and how communities respond(ed) to each in turn; and will understand the processes and consequences of scientific medical research and practice.
REQUIRED COURSE READINGS: The following books will be required for the completion of reading and writing assignments. They may be purchased at the campus bookstore.
J. N. Hays, The Burdens of Disease, (revised edition); ISBN-13: 978-0-8135-4613-1
Siddhartha Mukherjee, The Emperor of all Maladies: A Biography of Cancer; ISBN-13: 978-1-4391-7091-5
These books will also be available on reserve at the Penn State York Library the semester, so if you choose not to purchase the books, you can still keep up on assignments. As these books are available at the library, there is NO excuse for not completing reading/writing assignments!
ASSIGNMENTS & GRADING: The semester grade will be based upon performance in the following categories: class participation, three (3) online quizzes, five (5) 1-2 page article analysis papers, an 7-10 page disease research paper, a midterm exam and final exam. Your final grade will be determined according to the percentages in the following categories, NOT out of a running total of points.
Class Participation (10% of semester grade): This portion of your grade reflects both your attendance and actual engagement in the class – asking questions, participating in discussions, etc. Certain days you will be asked to bring questions/comments based upon the week’s reading to facilitate class discussion. You must be ready to hand these in during our class meeting and they will be counted toward your participation grade.
Online Quizzes (10%): There will be three quizzes that you will take during the course of the semester on Canvas. These must be completed by the end of the day Saturday on the week when they are assigned.
Article Analysis Papers (25% of semester grade): Assignment guidelines are located at the end of the Syllabus. These may be handed in to be in hard copy or submitted in Canvas.
Disease Research Project (20%): Assignment guidelines are located at the end of the Syllabus. This may be handed in to me in hard copy or submitted in Canvas.
Midterm Exam (15%)
Final Exam (20%)
On any given writing-based assignment, content (that is, what you know) will be graded most heavily. However, poor writing (grammar, spelling, punctuation), will negatively affect your grade. Late assignments will be accepted within one week of the assignment’s due date, with 20 points taken off if handed in within a week. If an assignment is more than one week late, it will NOT be accepted for credit.
If you must miss a class, and a paper is due, you may submit your paper via Canvas so that it is counted as on-time.
All late or extra credit work must be handed in to me or uploaded to Canvas, NO LATER than the last week of lectures BEFORE finals week.
All grading will be done according to a 100-point scale. Numeric Grade Breakdown:
MAKE-UP & ATTENDANCE POLICY:
If you know you will have to miss a test, you must make arrangements with me before the test date in order to take the test at an alternate time. In an emergency situation (i.e. flat tire, emergency room visit) you must contact me as soon as possible to make arrangements to make up the test. Arrangements to make up a test must be made within one week of the original date of the test.
Being late or not attending class will negatively affect your grade. You are responsible for all missed material due to any absences, and there is no make-up for absence from class.
ACADEMIC HONESTY STATEMENT:
Penn State defines academic integrity as the pursuit of scholarly activity in an open, honest and responsible manner. All students should act with personal integrity, respect other students’ dignity, rights and property, and help create and maintain an environment in which all can succeed through the fruits of their efforts (Faculty Senate Policy 49-20).
Dishonesty of any kind will not be tolerated in this course. Dishonesty includes, but is not limited to, cheating, plagiarizing, fabricating information or citations, facilitating acts of academic dishonesty by others, having unauthorized possession of examinations, submitting work of another person or work previously used without informing the instructor, or tampering with the academic work of other students. Students who are found to be dishonest will receive academic sanctions and will be reported to the University’s Judicial Affairs office for possible further disciplinary sanction.
Cell phones MUST be turned off or put on vibrate mode. Text messaging is NOT allowed during class – it is rude. You may use a laptop or tablet for taking notes, but with the understanding that you are only using it for notetaking purposes.
It is Penn State York's policy to not discriminate against qualified students with documented disabilities. If you have a disability-related need for accommodations in this course, please contact your instructor during the first week of class. You may also wish to contact Peggy Violette in the Nittany Success Center (771- 4013 ) for assistance with testing accommodations that extend beyond the scope of the instructor.
CAMPUS CLOSURE STATEMENT:In the event of a campus closure, course requirements, classes, deadlines and grading schemes are subject to changes that may include alternative delivery methods, alternative methods of interaction with the instructor, class materials, and/or classmates, a revised attendance policy, and a revised semester calendar and/or grading scheme. Information about course changes will be communicated through Canvas.
For notification about campus closures, please refer to Penn State York’s website at http://www.yk.psu.edu , call the weather hotline at 717 771-4079, or sign up for live text messages at PSUAlert (https://psualert.psu.edu/psualert/ ). This is a service designed to alert the Penn State community via text messages to cell phones when situations arise on campus that affect the ability of the campus - students, faculty and staff - to function normally.
Tuesday (1/14) – Introductions & Syllabus Overview
Thursday (1/16) – What is disease? A look at the Agricultural Revolution
Reading for Thursday: Hays, The Burdens of Disease, Introduction, pp.1-8
Mukherjee, The Emperor of all Maladies, Prologue, pp.1-8
Tuesday (1/21) – Disease & Medicine in Antiquity from Mesopotamia to Rome
Thursday (1/23) – Judaism, Christianity & Islam: Medicine & Faith
Readings for Thursday: Hays, Burdens, Chapter 1, pp.9-18
Mukherjee, Emperor, pp.9-50
Samuel Mark, “Alexander the Great, Seafaring, and the Spread of Leprosy,” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 57:3 (July 2002), 285-311
Assignment for Thursday (1/23): Bring 3 questions/comments to class for discussion
Tuesday (1/28) – Corpses in Antiquity & the Middle Ages
Thursday (1/30) – Medieval Medicine & Surgery
Readings for Thursday: Hays, Burdens, Chapter 2, pp.19-36
Mukherjee, Emperor, pp.51-104 (finish Part One)
Assignment for Thursday (1/30): Online quiz on Canvas (to be completed on your own)
Tuesday (2/4) –Bring out your dead!: The Black Death
Thursday (2/6) – Library Instruction in Pullo 102 with Joel Burkholder
Readings for Class: Hays, Burdens, Chapter 3, pp.37-61
Mukherjee, Emperor, pp.105-161
Assignment due by Friday (2/7): 1-2 page paper uploaded to Canvas describing your library instruction, which databases you experimented with, which diseases/medical topics you searched, and your preliminary results. Include any questions you may have about how to proceed with the project. (I expect these papers to be uploaded by the end of the day on Friday)
WEEK 5 Tuesday (2/11) – The Medical Renaissance
Thursday (2/13) – Reading Discussion
Readings for Class: Hays, Burdens, Chapter 4, pp.62-76
Mukherjee, Emperor, pp.162-190 (finish Part Two)
R. Allen Shotwell, “Animals, Pictures, and Skeletons: Andreas Vesalius’ Reinvention of the Public Anatomy Lesson,” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 71:1 (January 2016), 1-18
Assignment for Thursday (2/13): Bring 3 questions/comments on readings for discussion
Tuesday (2/18) – Natives & Newcomers: Medicine in Colonial America
Thursday (2/20) – Smallpox
Readings for Class: Hays, Burdens, Chapters 5-6, pp.77-134
Mukherjee, Emperor, pp.191-234 (Part Three)
Norman Gevitz, “The Devil Hath Laughed at the Physicians: Witchcraft and Medical Practice in Seventeenth-Century New England,” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 55:1 (January 2000), 5-36
James C. Riley, “Smallpox and American Indians Revisited,” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 65:4 (October 2010), 445-477
Assignment for Thursday (2/20): 1-2 page analysis of Gevitz or Riley
Research Topic & Preliminary Bibliography (3-5 sources) due
Tuesday (2/25) – Scurvy: The Scourge of the High Seas (Arrr!)
Thursday (2/27) – Cholera & Sanitation
Readings for Class: Hays, Burdens, Chapters 7, pp.135-154
Mukherjee, Emperor, pp.235-285
Sean Burrell and Geoffrey V. Gill, “The Liverpool Cholera Epidemic of 1832 and Anatomical Dissection – Medical Mistrust and Civil Unrest,” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 60:4 (October 2005), 478-498
Assignment for Thursday (2/27): Online quiz on Canvas (to be completed on your own)
Tuesday (3/3) – Midterm Exam
Thursday (3/5) – Tuberculosis & Industrialization
Readings for Class: Hays, Burdens, Chapter 8, pp.155-178
Mukherjee, Emperor, pp.286-333 (Finish Part Four)
Jeanne E. Abrams, “Spitting is Dangerous, Indecent, and against the Law!: Legislating Behavior during the American Tuberculosis Crusade,” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 68:3 (July 2013), 416-450
SPRING BREAK (MARCH 9-13) – NO CLASSES!
Tuesday (3/17) – Professionalization & Alternative Medicine
Thursday (3/19) – The Hospital System
Readings for Class: Mukherjee, Emperor, pp.334-392 (Part Five)
Toby A. Appel, “The Thomsonian Movement, the Regular Profession, and the State in Antebellum Connecticut: A Case Study of the Repeal of Early Medical Licensing Laws,” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 65:2 (April 2010), 153-186
Assignment for Thursday (3/19): 1-2 page analysis of Appel
WEEK 10 Tuesday (3/24) – Surgery & Nursing During the Civil War
Thursday (3/26) – Scientific Medicine
Readings for Class: Hays, Burdens, Chapters 9-10, pp.179-242
Mukherjee, Emperor, pp.393-422
Matthew Lavine, “The Early Clinical X-Ray in the United States: Patient Experiences and Public Perceptions,” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 67:4 (October 2012), 587-625
Assignment for Thursday (3/26): Bring 3 questions/comments to class for discussion
Tuesday (3/31) – Imperialism & Tropical Diseases: Malaria & Yellow Fever
Thursday (4/2) – Mental Illness
Readings for Class: Mukherjee, Emperor, pp.423-470 (Finish Part Six & Epilogue)
Assignment for Thursday (4/2): Online quiz on Canvas (to be completed on your own)
WEEK 12 Tuesday (4/7) – The Rise of the Asylum
Thursday (4/9) – Women’s Health & Gynecology
Readings for Class: Sarah W. Rodriguez, “Rethinking the History of Female Circumcision and Clitoridectomy: American Medicine and Female Sexuality in the Late Nineteenth Century,” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 63:3 (July 2008), 323-347
Laura Briggs, “The Race of Hysteria: “Overcivilization” and the “Savage” Woman in Late Nineteenth-Century Obstetrics and Gynecology,” American Quarterly 52:2 (June 2000), 246-273
Assignment for Thursday (4/9): 1-2 page analysis on Rodriguez and/or Briggs
Final Research Bibliography (7-10+ sources) due
Tuesday (4/14) – Race, Racism in the Profession, and Medical Experimentation
Thursday (4/16) – Military Medicine
Readings for Class: Hays, Burdens, Chapter 11, pp.243-282
Douglas M. Haynes, “Policing the Social Boundaries of the American Medical Association, 1847-70,” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 60:2 (April 2005), 170-195
Beth Linker, “Shooting Disabled Soldiers: Medicine and Photography in World War I America,” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 66:3 (July 2011), 313-346
Tracey Loughran, “Shell Shock, Trauma, and the First World War: The Making of a Diagnosis and Its Histories,” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 67:1 (January 2012), 94-119
Assignment for Thursday (4/16): 1-2 page analysis of Haynes, Linker or Loughran
Tuesday (4/21) – The Spanish Influenza Pandemic of 1918
Thursday (4/23) – Film: The Polio Crusade
Readings for Class: Heather MacDougall, “Toronto’s Health Department in Action: Influenza in 1918 and SARS in 2003,” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 62:1 (January 2007), 56-89
Tom Dicke, “Waiting for the Flu: Cognitive Inertia and the Spanish Influenza Pandemic of 1918-19,” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 70:2 (April 2015), 195-217
Lawrence O. Gostin, “Global Polio Eradication: Espionage, Disinformation, and the Politics of Vaccination,” The Milbank Quarterly 92:3 (September 2014), 413-417
Assignment for Thursday (4/23): RESEARCH PROJECT DUE IN CLASS!
Tuesday (4/28) – A Night With Venus: STDs
Thursday (4/30) – AIDS, Ebola, and the future of epidemics
Readings for Class: Hays, Burdens, Chapter 12, pp.283-314
Powel Kazanjian, “The AIDS Pandemic in Historic Perspective,” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Science 69:3 (July 2014), 351-382
Nicholas B. King, “The Influence of Anxiety: September 11, Bioterrorism, and American Public Health,” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 58:4 (October 2003), 433-441
Ann F. La Berge, “How the Ideology of Low Fat Conquered America,” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 63:2 (April 2008), 139-177
Assignment for Thursday (4/30): Bring 3 questions/comments for discussion
FINAL EXAM WEEK
Guidelines for Article Analysis Papers
1. Every paper must be:a. Typedb. Double-spacedc. 1-inch marginsd. Times or Times New Roman font size 122. To be included in the top right or left-hand corner of the first page (single-spaced):a. Nameb. Datec. Course Number3. Every paper must include a title (be creative!)4. Paper length: 1-2 pages5. Required content:a. Introductory paragraphi. Provide a brief explanation of the article(s) you are analyzing and identify the author’s main focus/argumentb. Body paragraphsi. Examine specific examples from the text that appear to be of particular significance or interestc. Conclusion paragraph
I recommend you incorporate a few (2-3) direct quotes that serve as examples from the reading to support your analysis – think of quotes as evidence that will strengthen your points. However, do not let quotes speak for themselves, or fill your paper with overly long quotes – follow quoted material with further analysis or explanation. Be sure to put direct quotes in quotation marks and provide proper citation (either a page number in parentheses at the end of the sentence or in a footnote).
Guidelines for Research Project
Your major project for this course will be specifically aimed at examining how the news media report on diseases – endemic, epidemic, and pandemic. You will choose a specific disease, then research the news coverage of that disease – you may restrict yourself to a given time period (say, the influenza pandemic of 1918-1920) or do a broad treatment of news coverage of that disease over the course of time.
A non-exhaustive list of questions you may seek to address:- The objectivity/subjectivity of news coverage: is the reporting clear-cut and descriptive, or does it seem to be trying to sway public opinion? Do the news reports try to calm the public, or encourage panic?- Understanding of the disease at the time, e.g., what was actually known about the disease at the time that it was being reported upon? How did the media’s/public’s knowledge of the subject determine the ways in which it was treated in news coverage?- The demographic impact of disease outbreaks: if you are looking at epidemics, do the news reports give daily/weekly/monthly body counts? How did such outbreaks affect essential services like hospitals and cemeteries?- Conflicts between medical professionals and public opinion- Media perceptions of alternative medical sects/practitioners- Media perceptions of medical science and research- What evidence is there for cultural and social assumptions or stigmas attached to specific diseases?
Diseases that lend themselves to this project: - Smallpox- Influenza- Typhoid- Cholera- Yellow Fever- Malaria- Polio- Diphtheria- Tuberculosis- Syphilis- HIV/AIDS- Ebola- Plague- Zika virus- Since we’re reading The Emperor of All Maladies, DO NOT PICK CANCER! Some (not all) of our Library Databases concerning newspapers and periodicals (in alphabetical order):- African American Newspapers (1827-1998)- African American Periodicals (1825-1995)- America’s Historical Newspapers, 1690-1922- America’s News Magazines- American Broadsides and Ephemera- American Periodicals Series (1740-1900)- Black Historical Newspapers, 1910-2002- British Newspapers, 1600-1950- Confederate Newspapers- Hispanic American Newspapers, 1808-1980- Latin American Newspapers, 1805-1922- Major National Newspapers (via Access World News)- New York Amsterdam News Historical (1922-1993)- New York Times Historical (available from 1851)- Newsbank (Access World News)- NewsCat- Newspaper Photos- NewspaperARCHIVE (Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio)- Nineteenth Century U.S. Newspapers (Gale)
Assignment format guidelines:
1. Length: 7-10 pages (typed, double-spaced, 1-inch margins, Times/Times New Roman font size 12)2. Bibliography: Plan to have as many sources as pages that you will write, so at least 7-10 for full credit3. Cover Page: This should include the title of your paper, your name and class information4. Sources Cited Page: This should be a bibliography of all sources that you used when writing your paper (this does NOT need to be annotated)5. You must cite ALL materials that you incorporate into your papers. This includes BOTH direct quotes AND paraphrased information!a. Citations – either parenthetical or as footnotes at the bottom of the page, though for this assignment I would prefer footnotes (refer to Turabian’s Chicago Manual for stylistic guidelines) – need to include the author, source and page number. 6. Paper structurea. Introductionb. Section by section/topic-by-topic body paragraphsc. Conclusion
Given that this research project will be based upon media coverage of diseases/disease outbreaks, you are relatively free to use whatever news outlets are available. Bear in mind, however, that if you use internet news websites, these may vary widely in scope and perspective (there are a lot of conspiracy theory sites out there, folks!), but depending upon your research questions, you may find yourself focusing on certain news outlets over others. I would encourage you to explore both traditional (newspapers, radio recordings, television news coverage) sources as well as non-traditional sources (news websites, especially if you’re considering disease outbreaks during the modern period). I will also expect you to have at least a couple (2-3) secondary sources to provide context and background on the disease you are writing about. These should be scholarly (university press) books and/or peer-reviewed scholarly journal articles. Do not rely upon websites for these sources.
Grammar – 20 points Content – 60 points Preliminary proposal and bibliography – 5 points Final bibliography – 15 points
“The Devil hath Laughed at the Physicians”: Witchcraft and Medical Practice in the Seventeenth – Century New England
The book by Norman Gevitz is an analysis of how witchcraft influenced medical practices in the seventeenth century. In the report, he uses a case of Salem witchcraft issues where various assumptions were made on the role that male physicians and surgeons played. The first argument was that these medical practitioners played did not play an important role in the case of the happenings. The other assumption was that just like lawyers and clergymen, the medical practitioners played an important role, but their ages and the lack of difference between their attitudes towards the happenings and their behaviors made their role not useful (Gevitz, 5-36).
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