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Youth Homelessness in Australia (Essay Sample)

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literature_review_youth_homelesness.pdf 2.2 Assignment 2: Literature Review Assessment Task Description Due Week Weight Literature review based on group work issue, discussed from a particular disciplinary perspective (1,000 word individual assignment) Week 11: 12th May, 12N 30% Learning Objectives: Assessment Task 2 1. Demonstrate beginning level communication skills in technical written report, with openness to consider a diversity of worldviews. 2. Develop generic academic skills – theoretical and practical and an appreciation of how theory and practice inform one another, i.e. application of theory to ‘real' situations. 3. Summarise issues identified in field work, for example, relating to representation, values, power and/or control TASK A literature review is used to determine what is already known and has previously been written on a topic. It will assist to identify key issues related to a particular topic, and any concepts or theories that help explain particular behaviours, phenomena or processes. In this instance the issue that you will explore is the one your group is investigating in Assignment 3 as the focus of your group field work. The issue I must complete is youth homelessness in Australia, so you must relate the literature review and the following questions to youth homelessness in Australia and my perspective that I must do is educational resources available to homelessness youth in Australia ,, as well as answer the questions you can take a look at the unemployment example written by my school on what I could include it is an example of a top assignment.. Your Literature Review will include at least 6 sources – journal articles, text books, reports and web based materials – with information relevant to this issue and will: The following questions must all relate to educational resources / education available and provided to homeless youth and homeless youth in general It must be double spaced Writeen as a literature review All sources must be academic must follow each point of the criteria. 1) Outline the issue your group is investigating and explain the particular perspective that you are considering; The issue I must complete is youth homelessness in Australia, so you must relate the literature review and the following questions to youth homelessness in Australia and my perspective that I must do is educational resources available to homelessness youth in Australia, and what education resources are provided what help is provided to educational youth all these questions must relate to homeless youth and also educational resources for homeless youth in Australia. 1. Define any terms or key concepts 2. Identify what research in this area has already been undertaken on the topic and point out gaps in knowledge What research in Australia for homeless youth and educational resources has been taken out for homelessness and education. 3. Critically consider what debates exist and different points of view from within the particular disciplinary perspective. 4. Establish your point of view 5. Explain how this existing information will inform the work you are undertaking. What if any policies, guidelines or regulations might exist that affect everyday life and work of people and the organisations within communities; and 6. How the information you have read (both from within Australia and overseas), helps to better understand the issue and possible effective approaches to working toward a civil, harmonious and socially acceptable future? It is not acceptable to use the same reference materials as others in your group. We expect independent work. It is not necessary to discuss the particular place where your group is undertaking your investigation, although you may discuss particular categories of stakeholders, e.g. an issue relating to tourism might consider local residents, the local tourism businesses, local government and the visitor. The detail about the place your group is investigating will be part of the Group Report (Assignment 3). Read the School Academic Writing Guide with regards to referencing; and Writing a Literature Review (also in the Assignment folder) on vUWS. Also see the web page on the UWS Library page. see Resources: Research Resources http://library.uws.edu.au/infoGathering.php?case=litReview but note, this assignment requires only a very limited literature given you are undertaking a first semester first year unit, not post graduate research, so some of the advice on the library web site is quite advanced. Assignment submitted via Turnitin on vUWS before 12th May. A hardcopy of the final Assignment must be submitted. Assessment Criteria - Evidence of relevant independent academic research and reading from at least 6 sources - Sound definition of the issue and each of the key terms and concepts - Knowledge/research gaps are clearly identified with strong arguments. - Understanding and demonstration of critical analysis of the materials reviewed. - Link made between the information you have read and effective approaches to dealing with the issue in the ‘real' world. - Logical structure in which the content and argument have been properly developed. Good flow of the arguments. - Well written & presented: proper sentence construction, grammar and spelling. Proper paragraph formatting – easy to read. - Correct referencing (All sources acknowledged for both direct quotes/facts and ‘ideas'). Follow School Academic Writing Guide. AN EXAMPLE OF A TOP LITERATURE REVIEW CONSIDERED FROM MY UNIVERSITY ON A DIFFERENT TOPIC IS THE FOLLOWING YOU MAY BE ABLE TO TAKE IDEAS for my assignment literature review on youth homelessness, you can get ideas of what they have put in their literartureOF WHAT KIND OF THINGS THEY HAVE PUT, TO GET AN EXAMPLE ANSWERING THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES AVAIABLE TO HOMELESS PEOPLE/ YOUTHS.. Literature Review: Unemployment UNIVERSITY EXAMPLE OF GOOD WORK Unemployment is a key issue facing nations all over the world today. It is an ongoing problem that has a constant impact for governments, communities and individuals. Employment is an essential component in the market economies of the world; it gives persons the means of entitlement to necessary goods and services (Robbins 2008). It is commonly understood that governments should be able to do something to fix the problem of unemployment (van Krieken et al. 2006). For this reason there has been much debate over the definition of unemployed persons, causes of unemployment and the results unemployment has on communities. The debate enables government policies to be created to address the problem from various perspectives and to attempt to find a solution. There is strong sociological debate over what the definition of an unemployed person is and whether or not statistical data of unemployed persons is overestimated or underestimated. Some believe that official statistics include people who sign on to receive unemployment benefits but are not actively seeking employment (van Krieken et al. 2006). These sociologists believe these people are not truly unemployed, they are those who are seeking monies elsewhere whilst illegally claiming unemployment benefits. Other sociologists believe that persons who are left out of unemployment statistics because they are looking for fulltime work and in doing so they are partaking in training schemes to achieve work and are deemed to be employed (van Krieken et al. 2006). Unemployed people are defined by the Australian Bureau of Statistics as ‘not being employed', that is have not had one hour or more of paid work in a week, have been actively seeking employment within the last four weeks and are able to start work immediately or persons who had found a job and are waiting to start it in the next two weeks (ABS 2010). Sociologists believe these strict definitions leave out those who are under-employed, gaining small amount of income for the sake of survival but continuing to search for more work. There is much debate about the causes of unemployment. Sociologists believe in several causes. These are; frictional unemployment, when workers change jobs but do not move immediately to their new job, structural unemployment, where jobs are available and there are workers seeking employment but the workers do not match the jobs, sectoral unemployment when unemployed persons lack the skills and qualifications necessary to fill vacancies and cyclical unemployment which is due to fluctuations in the business cycle and financial markets (van Krieken et al. 2006). Human geographers believe the causes of unemployment are as a result of both sectoral and cyclical reasoning. They give three main causes of unemployment; (1) the impact of periodic international recessions which cause business to close and result in job loss, (2) labour displacing of industry rationalisation and the increased application of technology to increase productivity and (3) structural change in employment related to the growing importance of services and reduction in manufacturing services (Waitt et al. 2000, p. 394). The results of unemployment range from the individual level to the community. Individuals often lose a sense of identity and experience high rates of mental ill-health, mortality and suicide (van Krieken et al. 2006). Sociologists believe that unemployment is not randomly distributed over the population; rather it disadvantages some groups more than others (van Krieken et al. 2006). Human geographers have a similar belief however they believe unemployment is a social indicator that contributes to disadvantaged suburbs and social polarisation. This occurs when a community is involved with specific employment industries. Suburbs or communities in Sydney whose work is associated with the globalised industries of highly skills services are those who experience low levels of unemployment and higher weekly incomes, (for example Hunters Hill and North Sydney) suburbs whose main source of work relates to ‘old economy' jobs such as manufacturing experience high levels of unemployment and have a higher number of workers in vulnerable occupations who may be affected by unemployment as the economy makes further structural changes to promote the new service industries of the globalised world (Baum et al. 2005). The result in Sydney is that the majority of unemployed persons are finding themselves in the peripheral suburbs with poor mobility and lack of job opportunities (for example, Penrith and Campbelltown) (Waitt et al. 2000, p. 405). Sociologists agree that small communities whose economies are structured around one main area of employment will be disadvantaged when a negative change is made in relation to that industry, leaving communities with high crime rates, lower property values, and a sense of depression and despair (van Kriekan et al. 2006). These forces create communities who continue to experience long term unemployment at increased levels, lacking services to overcome their disadvantage and reduce their unemployment levels. The Australian government has recently changed its approach to unemployment services to address the increased levels of unemployment experienced as a result of global financial crisis in 2009. The new approach was adopted on 1 July 2009 in a service called Job Services Australia, which replaced the Job Network. The Job Network was comprised of 120 not-for-profit organisations that provided assistance to persons on Centerlink benefits who were required to fulfil the requirements of active job seeking to receive the payments. These organisations provided courses and training to anyone interested and job opportunities listing. Customised assistance was provided once a person was unemployed for over 12 months (Welfare Rights Centre 2007). The new approach prefers one on one assistance for those unemployed which targets individual needs, including skills and training services (DEEWR 2010). Job Services also works with the employers at the local level to identify needs of businesses and match employers with job seekers within their services. The approach is in line with both human geographers and sociologists whose findings on unemployment suggest that services should be provided to individual communities and persons facing disadvantage, services that could not only benefit the individual but the wider community. It is clear from this discussion on various approaches to unemployment that there is an urgent need to develop systems within societies to effectively combat unemployment. The definition of unemployment needs to be extended to include persons who are underemployed, in doing so services dedicated to the unemployed would benefit a greater number of people and providing skills training to those wishing to increase their job opportunities for the future. If this takes place communities of disadvantage as well as persons of disadvantage will be enabled to break away from their position in society and be included in the wider society they live in. This would improve weekly income and personal health and status. The Job Services network needs to break past the definition provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, for which it relies, and improve services to a greater number of people in need. The service needs to be directed to address the causes of unemployment, in particular sectoral and cyclical changes from a manufacturing economy to a service economy. Greater services need to be provided to suburbs working in the ‘old economy'. Unemployment and its causes will continue to change and it will be a factor that societies will need to address into the future, constantly adapting services provided to the changing needs, causes and impacts. References: Australian Bureau of Statistics 2010, Labour Force Australia, cat. no. 6202.0, April, viewed 10 May 2010, Australian Bureau of Statistics online. http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/6202.0 Baum, S, O'Connor, K & Stimson, R 2005, ‘Suburbs of Advantage and Disadvantage: The social mosaic of our larger cities' in Fault Lines Exposed: Advantage and Disadvantage across Australia's settlement system, Monash University Press, Melbourne, pp. 03.1 – 03.47. Department of Education, Employment and Work Relations 2010, Job Services Australia – Home, viewed 20 May 2010, http://www.deewr.gov.au/Employment/JSA/Pages/default.aspx Robbins, RH 2008, 'Hunger, Poverty, and Economic Development', in Global Problems and the culture of capitalism, 4th edn, Pearson Education, Boston, USA, pp. 177-201. Van Krieken, R, Habibis, D, Smith, P, Hutchins, B, Haralambos, M & Holborn, M 2006, ‘Work, leisure and tourism' in Sociology: Themes and Persepectives, 3rd edn, Pearson Education, Frenchs Forest, NSW, pp. 175 – 211. Waitt, G, McGuire, P, Dunn, K, Hartig, K & Burnley, I 2000,‘Transforming Cities', in Introducing Human Geography: Globalisation, Difference and Inequality, Pearson Education, Frenchs Forest, NSW, pp. 383- 435. Welfare Rights Centre 2008, The Independent Social Security Handbook: The Job Network and what it offers, viewed 11 May 2010, http://www.welfarerights.org.au/isshsep07/ default.ht YOU CAN LOOK AT RESOURCES SUCH AS THE OASIS HOMELESS YOUTH THE GREEN PAPER All sources must be academic Must be written in literature format Must be very academic Any academic sources Can you use havard referencing And up to at least 6-8 references. Times new roman font 12 Criteria Unsatisfactory (Fail) 0-49% Satisfactory (Pass) 50-64% Good (Credit) 65-74% Very Good (Distinction) 75-84% Excellent (High Distinction) 85% + - Evidence of relevant independent academic research & Reading at least 6 sources. - Sound definition of the issue and each key terms and concepts. (30%) The student has not sufficiently researched the issue and concepts or their work is incomplete. Student does not appear to understand key terms/concepts. Frequent errors. Shows little or no evidence of research or reading; relies primarily on non-academic sources; no reference or having fewer than 6 sources of reference to academic literature. The student has answered the questions, though some aspects may have received more attention than others. Student has demonstrated a basic understanding of key topics/ concepts. Some minor errors or inaccuracies. Students have undertaken satisfactory reading/research (at minimum, 6 academic sources, two of which should go beyond the set readings). The student has answered all aspects of the questions in a balanced fashion. Student has demonstrated they have a satisfactory understanding of key topics/concepts. Students have undertaken reasonable levels of reading/research (6-8 reasonable/good academic sources, three of which should go beyond the set readings). The student has reviewed the literature in a balanced fashion and there is a reasonably clear line of argument. Student has a very good understanding of key topics/ concepts and has made some attempt to demonstrate the relationship between them (though this may be done inconsistently). Student has researched widely (more than 8 good academic sources) and made clear attempt to go beyond resources provided by the lecturer. Student has a strong understanding of key concepts/theories and is able to comprehensively discuss the relationship between them. Uses novel but relevant sources and/or distinguishes between the quality of the literature. The student has clearly undertaken independent research and integrated ideas from a wide reading of relevant and scholarly material. - Knowledge/ research gaps are clearly identified. - Critical analysis with good understanding and linkages to case studies (40%) Student has poor understanding of the chosen topic. No debates with different points of view. Lack of critical review/analysis on key policies, guidelines or regulations. No case studies of relevant practices linking from the literature review of the topic. No suggestion to possible effective approaches in the future. The literature review shows the knowledge/research gaps. There is a critical analysis but not well integrated with the general discussion (mainly descriptive by simple restatement of the sources). Limited case studies reviewed with minimum linkages to the key issue. Reasonable suggestions to possible effective approaches in the future. The knowledge/research gaps are clearly identified with sound arguments. Student can integrate relevant literature into general discussion reasonably well, but there is room for improvement. Case studies are reviewed with sensible linkages to the key issue. Good suggestions to possible effective approaches in the future. There is a very clear line of arguments to identify the knowledge/research gaps. The literature review shows comprehensive research with very good understanding and critical analysis. Case studies are reviewed with good linkages to the key topic. Very good suggestions to possible effective approaches in the future. The student has developed an ‘outstanding' line of arguments to identify knowledge/research gaps. High-levels of thorough critical analysis and engagement with the literature with independent and original thoughts. Case studies are rigorously reviewed with very strong linkages to the key topic. Excellent suggestions to possible effective approaches in the future. Logical Structure (10%) Work is poorly structured. There is no real introduction, body and conclusion. Disorganised/incoherent structure. Some minor problems but clear attempt has been made to provide logical structure of the literature review with reasonable flow of the debates. Logical structure of the literature review with good flow of the debates. Some improvements could be made with linking key points between paragraphs. Very good organisation of material. Very good flow of the debates. Very good links between paragraphs. Room for minor improvement. Excellent/outstanding organisation including clear logical flow of sound arguments consistent throughout the literature review. Writing style and Presentation (10%) Work is poorly written and presented. Frequent spelling/grammatical errors. Overall meaning is not clear. Poor paragraph formatting. No page title & page numbering. Meaning is clear but some spelling, grammatical and/or structural errors. Overall, work is well presented with proper paragraph formatting and shows satisfactory achievement in literature review. Work is reasonably well written, though some improvements could be made. Work is well presented and shows more than satisfactory achievement in literature review quality. Work is very well written with only very minor spelling/grammatical errors. Overall work is very well presented with superior quality in professional presentation. Work is extremely well-written. Excellent use of language. High levels of originality and/or creativity. Overall work is extremely well presented with ‘outstanding' quality in professional presentation. Correct Referencing (10%) Unsatisfactory standard of referencing including quotes without citation or over-reliance on quotes and missing in-text references. Apparent plagiarism. Satisfactory referencing (as of School Academic Writing Guide) but some minor problems (e.g. too many quotes or difficulty with secondary citations). Good in-text referencing with few problems. Overall, well-referenced throughout the report. Overall, very high standard of referencing consistent throughout the report. Faultless or near-faultless referencing. source..
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Date: May 09, 2011.
Literature Review: Youth Homelessness in Australia
The assignment reviews on youth homelessness in Australia which had been increasing over the years. Youths has been defined as the time of human development that exists childhood and maturity. Hence, they are prone to be homeless as compared with other people in a society. However, it is believed that, youth is an early period of development or even existence, for instance, a nation in its youth (Chamberlain & MacKenzie, 1998). This literature review, mostly explanations will be dealing with the definition based on the young person in late adolescent from age 25 to 32 years. On the other hand, a homeless person has been defined as being homeless when he or she doesn’t have adequate access to conventional shelters, particularly at night. Being mature does not mainly mean living on streets, but also individuals leaving in temporary accommodations like in abandoned houses and even in caravans (Waitt Et al 2000). Most homeless individual’s experiences crisis on housing or even staying with friends or in relatives’ houses. Homeless individuals can even be those who have homes, but their homes are unsafe. As a result, it can be very hard to say if one is at risk of being homeless. According to Van Et al. (2006) education resources for youth homelessness, refers to the any kind of materials and facilities that are used in the act that has effects that are informative on mind, character or even physical abilities of an individual. In their technical senses, they are tools that are used in the process by which youth homelessness get knowledge, skills as well as values.
According to Homelessnessaustralia, (2010) there have been various researches which have been carried out in the field of education resources in homeless youth in Australia. Some of these studies include: Australia homelessness Youth, that was funded by the charity based National youth commission; Youth Homelessness: Early Intervention & Prevention, that explored homelessness in Australia in the context of relevant policies in social and education matters; and educating the homeless youths in Australia, that explored the number of homeless youth in Australia and teaching resources provided to them (Van Et al 2006). However, the gap between the existing researches is the quality of education resources provided to the homelessness youth Australia. In addition, different studies are providing different causes of inefficient education resources provided to the homeless youths in Australia, they have not concurred on similar causes. In addition, all studies undertaken, have not extensively dealt with policies in place, which guide the distribution of education resources in the country, (Davis, & Burke, 1995).
Due to the gaps stated above, there have been strong debates over education resources that have been provided to the homeless youths in Australia. Chamber...
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