Compare And Contrast The Content Theory And Process Theory (Essay Sample)
This assignment provides you with an opportunity to explore the topic of motivation and engage with Organisational Behaviour literature.
This assignment requires you to do research. Your task is to draw on Organisational Behaviour theory to critically analyse content and process theories of work motivation.
In the essay you need to:
• Pick one content theory and one process theory of motivation
• Compare and contrast the CHOSEN content theory and process theory
• Illustrate the usefulness of the CHOSEN content and process theories of motivation for managers in a real-life organisation
Your essay should have the following sections:
1. Introduction. State the topic of the essay, what you will be arguing, and how you have structured the essay. Briefly introduce each of the two CHOSEN theories.
2. Compare and contrast the CHOSEN content theory and process theory of motivation. Identify characteristics that are similar and different and emphasise similarities and differences where
3. Illustrate the usefulness of the CHOSEN content and process theories of motivation for managers in a real-life organisation. Based on your analysis in Section 2, provide an informed and supported viewpoint about how content and process theories of motivation may be used by managers to influence employee behaviour. Consider the pros and cons in order to come to a supported assessment and conclusion. Explain and clarify using concrete examples.
4. Conclusion. Summarise key points made in the essay and discuss implications.
5. Reference list. You need to use the APA 6 referencing style.
As a general guide, sections 2 and 3 should be roughly equal in word count. The introduction and conclusion section should account for approximately 10% of the word count.
You MUST consult and reference a minimum of four (4) academic articles and two (2) books (of which one can be the recommend textbook, Wood et al, 2019) to support your analysis. We encourage students to go beyond the minimum number of required references. The minimum number equates to an acceptable level on the marking guide.
We recommend you consider the following publications to identify relevant articles: Journal of Organizational Behavior, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Journal of Applied Psychology, Academy of Management Journal, British Journal of Management, Human Relations, Journal of Management, Leadership Quarterly, Business Horizons, Harvard Business Review.
The document should be written as a clear, concise essay. It is important that your essay has a logical structure, and makes use of relevant subheadings where appropriate. Ensure coherent writing and avoid grammatical and spelling mistakes. For reading (and marking) ease please use a 12-point Calibri font with 2x spacing.
Content and Process Theories of Motivation
Content and Process Theories of Motivation
Motivation is the force behind all human actions and is a vital component of management at the workplace. It is one of the most important factors to create effective management inside an organization (Miner, 2015). It is essential for managers to recognize and fulfill the needs of their employees to keep them satisfied and motivated (Hersey, Blanchard & Johnson, 2007). There are two main categories of motivation theories: content theories and process theories. This essay seeks to compare and contrast Alderfer’s theory (content) and Adam’s theory (process) and provide examples of their application at the workplace. This paper is divided into four sections: introduction, similarities and differences, application at the workplace and conclusion.
Similarities and Differences
Both Alderfer’s and Adam’s theories focus on employee motivation. The difference between content and process theories is that content theories focus on individual needs while process theories focus on behavior. Content theories describe what motivates people while process theories explain how people are motivated. Content theories insist that all people have the same set of needs which must be satisfied. Process theories emphasize that people are different and that people have different needs and to address the differences in needs they focus on the process of motivation.
Alderfer’s – ERG theory distinguishes three classes of needs: existence, relatedness, and growth (Alderfer, 1969). It is similar to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory that categorizes needs as physiological, safety and security, belongingness and love, esteem and self-actualization (Maslow, 1943). In Alderfer’s theory, existence needs include needs for basic necessities, that is, an individual’s psychological and physical safety needs. Relatedness needs involve relationships, love, and belongingness. They focus on public fame and recognition, that is, social needs and the external components of esteem needs. Growth needs are self-development, personal growth, and advancement, that is, self-actualization and the internal component of esteem needs.
Adam’s equity theory states that people are motivated by fairness and they receive what they consider fair for their efforts, contribution and costs. This theory suggests that people compare their contribution to work, costs of their actions and the benefits they receive to the contribution and benefits of others, in most cases those who earn more than them. If people perceive there is inequity to the ratio of their inputs-outputs to that of others, then they will be motivated to reduce the inequalities (Adams & Freedman, 1976).
At the workplace, the level of education, experience, and amount of effort determine salary, promotion, reward, and recognition. The difference in motivational theories is how they categorize and classify these factors. Adam’s theory classifies the amount of effort, experience, and level of education as inputs and recognition, reward, promotion and salary as outputs. The ratio of inputs to outputs influences motivation. In contrast, Alderfer’s theory classifies salary under existence needs as it helps meet basic material necessities, recognition as relatedness needs, and promotion as growth needs (Stoyanov, 2017). The
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