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Sociology (Essay Sample)

Instructions:
1. examine the article girls,boys and schools:Gender diffrences in the relationships between school-related factors and student deviance by allison ann payne.(vol.47(4):1167-1200. find the areas of the theory that are central to the research in the article. discuss in detail both the article and the way in which the theories are used in its analysis. 3 pages 2. Discuss the study conducted in race, code, of the street and violent deliquency. a multilevel investigation of neighbourhood street culture and individual norms of violence by eric stewart nand ronald simons.(VOL 48(2):569-605) select the theories that are most relevant to this study (vold theory) and discuss in detail the support for the theories offered by the research described in the article.describe other implications of the article\\\\\\\'s research results for criminological theory policy.3pages 3. Consider the findings in unstructured socializing,collective,efficacy and violent behavior among urban youth.(VOL.48(2)443-474) How are these findings relevant for theories in the vold and simpson chapters.2pages 4. discuss the research presented in participation and frequency during criminal careers across the life span.(vol.48(2):607-637) describe the implications of the author\\\\\\\'s study for specific criminological theories and for criminal justice policy. 2PAGES Draft is needed as well. source..
Content:
Running Head: Sociology

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PART 1
Examine the article girls, boys and schools: Gender differences in the relationships between school-related factors and student deviance by Allison Ann Payne. Find the areas of the theory that are central to the research in the article. Discuss in detail both the article and the way in which the theories are used in its analysis.
The main motivation behind this research was to investigate the possibility of gender differences in the relationships between student deviance, student bonding and the communal set up that exists in schools. In order to understand the research better a few key areas were identified by the researcher as being key to the study. The first area that the researcher focused on was; the effect of school related factors on boys and girls delinquency and it’s relation to drug use. Another area of focus was whether the overall model of relationships among student bonding, the communal school organization and deviance will tend to differ according to gender. Another key research area was the relationship between communal school organizations will have a stronger protective effect for girls than for boys. The fourth Area central to the research is whether the relationship between student bonding and deviance will differ between the the genders such that the bonding of students will have a stronger protective effect on girls than on boys.
In trying to analyze the key research areas, the researcher was able to bring out a number of findings; while school crime and violence have been in decline. Drug usage has gone up and so has delinquency. Several factors have been highlighted that have an influence on this finding. Some of these factors include the social relations that exist within a school, the cultural system of values and norms, the management structure of the school and the level of interaction between the students, the administration and the teaching faculty. All of these factors the researcher pointed out determine weather a school will be successful or not. Past and current research has also established the importance of school organization. Another key area identified is student bonding. The elements of this factor include attachment to a school by a student and commitment to education.
Results obtained after the research showed that, although gender was a significant predictor of deviance in all models for example boys were more likely to engage in deviant behavior, student bonding and communal organization do explain some of this difference.
The first area of study was supported for both delinquency and drug use. Which illustrates that the relationships between communal school organization, student bonding, and student deviance are different for girls and boys. This bonding element had a protective effect against delinquency for both genders; the protective effect...
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