Two Basic Processes by Which DNA Specifies Proteins (Essay Sample)
1 Identify the 2 basic processes by which proteins are specified by DNA. 2 Identify 4 modes of inheritance for single genetic diseases. 3 Discuss the significance of multifactorial traits. One of your source has to be text book understanding pathophysiology by sue E.Huether and Kathryn L.McCance fifth edition on Chapter chapter 2.source..
Two basic processes by which DNA specifies proteins
There are two fundamental processes by which proteins are specified by DNA namely; transcription and translation. Transcription is the first step in new protein synthesis that involves building a molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA) to complement the sequence of the DNA of a particular gene (Huether & McCance, 2012). Translation on its part refers to the entire process that produces a protein molecule from mRNA through the ribosomal machinery of the cell.
Four modes of inheritance for single genetic diseases
There are four modes of inheritance for single genetic diseases as indicated below. First there are Autosomal dominant disorders that occur as a result of the presence of the mutation in another copy of a gene carried by the autosome. Children born by a person with this disorder have a 50% likelihood of inheriting the mutation. Second there are autosomal recessive disorders whereby two mutations one in each gene, for a gene on an autosome can cause a disease (Finegold, 2015). Heterozygotes (parents of an affected individual) carry one copy of the mutated gene, are asymptomatic and hence are carriers. In the event that two carriers have children, each child has 25% likelihood of inheriting both mutations and end up with the disease.
Third there are X-linked recessive disorders whereby a mutation occurs in a gene on the X chromosome. A single ...
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