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Visual & Performing Arts
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Professor Voice Thread The Civil War, Reconstruction, Jim Crow Eras (Essay Sample)


In his bid for the Presidency in 1860, Abraham Lincoln vowed to end slavery. Southern states did not waste time in declaring their secession from the United States shortly after his inauguration. In this unit, we look at the complex and varied realities of African American artists from 1860 to 1900, as Civil War finally ended slavery between 1861 and 1865. The Reconstruction Era that followed from 1865 to 1877 brought greater political and economic power to African Americans. Tragically, new forms of repression and restriction emerged after 1877, for example with “Jim Crow” restrictions on education, employment, and financing. Artists working during, and in the aftermath of the Civil War include Edmonia Lewis, Harriet Powers, Edward M. Bannister, Charles Ethan Porter, and Henry Ossawa Tanner. At the end of the 19th century, the brilliant and acute intellect, and fierce and passionate activism of W.E.B. Du Bois, transformed both African American history and the future potential for “racial uplift.”
1. Watch: Professor VoiceThread “The Civil War, Reconstruction, and Jim Crow Eras”
2. Examine: Waiting for the Hour, 1863, carte-de-visite of an emancipation watch night meeting, National Museum of African American History and Culture
3. Read: Kirsten Pai Buick, Child of the Fire: Mary Edmonia Lewis and the Problem of Art History’s Black and Indian Subject (Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2010): 1-29. (pdf)
4. Read: Anna O. Marley, Henry Ossawa Tanner: Modern Spirit (University of California Press, 2012): 17-41. (pdf)
5. Read: W.E.B. Du Bois, “Of Our Spiritual Strivings” and “Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others,” in The Souls of Black Folks (pdf)
6. Read: Deborah Willis, “The Sociologist’s Eye: W.E.B. Du Bois and the Paris Exposition,” in A Small Nation of People: W.E.B. Du Bois and African American Portraits of Progress (Washington, D.C.: The Library of Congress, 2003): 50-78. (pdf)
7. Submit: three entries in the Journal platform on BlackBoard that reflect on all six sources of information in this unit. Each entry should be 200-300 words in length and discuss specific points of information, using names of authors, videos, artists, places, dates, titles, etc. You can think about these entries in terms of answering general questions about your engagement with each VoiceThread, reading, or video. For example, discuss something new that you learned, or something that surprised you. Did course materials lead you to think about the topic, the United States, or yourself, in a new way? DUE DATE: Complete all entries no later than Sunday, July 21st at Midnight.
8. Post: The text of one of your journal entries as a Discussion Thread in the Unit Four Discussion Forum no later than Sunday, July 21st at Midnight.
9. Comment: Reply to the Discussion Forum posts of at least five of your classmates with substantial and collegial responses that affirm and/or add to the thoughts of your fellow students. DUE DATE: Complete all comments no later than Midnight on Monday, July 22nd, when Unit Four ends and the Discussion Forums close.


Visual and Performing Arts
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation
Goldfield (2018) examines the pivotal though a misunderstood era of unfinished Revolution: Reconstruction and After 1865-1890. This was the Reconstruction era that was followed by the civil war, deemed as the initial effort that constructed an interracial democracy in American history. Reconstruction focused on issues that are deemed relevant today. The Reconstruction era defined who is an American citizen, rights, the relationship between economic and political freedom which upholds the primary responsibility to protect Americans' rights, the state or the federal government and how public responsibilities were expected to respond to terrorism episodes. During the reconstructive era rewriting of the constitution and laws took place to incorporate the principle of equality irrespective of race, failings and accomplishments of the Reconstruction government in the South, the consolidation of a white supremacy new system at the end of 19th century and reasons for Southerners’ violent oppositions for the northern retreat from Reconstruction .
On the other hand, the Civil War transformed the American nation destruction of the institution of slavery and the elimination of the threat of secession. The civil war enhanced a central understanding of the people and a nation, the boundaries of citizenship, the balance of power between the national and local authority and the meaning of equality and freedom. The struggle during the civil war finally liberated the four million emancipated slaves. The carte-de-visite depict William T.Carlton painting that captures a multitude of enslaved African Americans tagging along with a colored woman on the night of 31st Dec 1862 (Van Horn, 2017). A carte- de- viste was made by glueing a photograph or print on to a card of about three to four inches. The painting focus is linked with a white-haired man holding a pocket watch symbolizing the 1st minute of January 1st 1863, Emancipation Day. Collaboratively, William Lloyd Garison and diverse advocates for antislavery handed over the authentic painting to President Lincoln, as a gift of honor leading a successful antislavery movement. The scene symbolises the several watch meetings that Africans Americans held during the Eve of 1862. Notably, the end of slavery in the US occurred in December 1865 after the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment.
The painting hanging in the president Abraham Lincoln office where he endorsed Emancipation Proclamation on 1st Jan 1963 today identified as Lincoln Bedroom in the Whitehouse was an African American art that voiced the slaves’ predicaments (Van Horn, 2017). The art-focused to end Confederate states institutional slavery. Though the Emancipation Proclamation failed to end slavery through ought the union, the civil war entire purpose was transformed. After Lincoln issuance on Emancipation Proclamation, the civil war took a new looks end slavery as opposed to preserving the union. Enslaved Africans Americans assembled on December 1862 and prayed for the proclamation of the institution which was to occur on 1st Jan 1863.
Buick (2009) claims that Mary Edmonia Lewis's famous sculpture artwork was inspired by biblical and historical themes in the Child of the Fire book. Kirste

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