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10 pages/≈2750 words
13 Sources
Social Sciences
Annotated Bibliography
English (U.S.)
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The Transnational Duty to Prevent Human Trafficking (Annotated Bibliography Sample)


This is an Annotated Bibliography. Must be formatted in (strict) current Turabian style (guidelines) and include a title and a bibliography page. NO PLAGIARISM as I will check if it is OR not. DO NOT COPY ANNOTATION FROM PURELY THE "ABSTRACT" OR "CONCLUSION"; THOSE ARE NOT APPROPRIATE (as I will check if the annotations are copy or not). THIS MUST BE AN ORIGINAL, CUSTOM written annotated bibliography. This means, you must read the sources, then write the each annotation from what you read. Remember, this is a graduate (Master’s) level assignment, so make sure that it is – Graduate level academic writing on this assignment is very important. AGAIN, PLEASE REVIEW THE UPLOADED FILES THAT IS FULL OF INSTRUCTIONS AND THE GRADING RUBRIC.

Ross, Megan. "A Diamond in the Rough : The Transnational Duty to Prevent Human Trafficking in the Protocol." Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy 21, no. 325 (2014): 325–368.
This article looks at the three-pronged approach of the Protocol, as well as the actual approaches utilized by State Parties in preventing human trafficking. It is focused on answering the question: "did State Parties intentionally sign themselves up for mandatory transnational obligations to address the root causes of human trafficking in countries of origin?;[The Protocol is the international legal framework for human trafficking. Its long name is: Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Supplementing the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime.] [States who are members of the Protocol are also called State Parties.]
Written by Megan Ross, a legal consultant to the Alberta Civil Liberties Research Centre, the article maintains that human trafficking is a transnational issue and its impacts extend beyond national borders. If states hope to make a dent in the growing incident of human trafficking, they must take on this transnational view in creating policies. This way, solutions are made at the international level, and laws addressing human trafficking would be complementary from country to country. Moreover, Ross believes that the utilimate goal of the Protocol is prevention. Most states today focuses on criminalizing and prosecuting traffickers, but Ross says that this approach is too narrow, if not ineffective, because it does not deal with the root cause of human trafficking. Human trafficking is essentially, a human rights issue because as long as the issues that lead to its conduct is not addressed - poverty, underdevelopment and lack of equal opportunity – there is a great chance for re-victimization. Ross went on to explore the various approaches utilized by the United States in combatting human trafficking. In conclusion, Ross says that improving border control in origin and transit countries is effective in keeping the problem out of their territories, and a human rights approach may not be a priority among state actors, but must be reiterated by civil society if the goal is to eradicate the problem.
Rahman, Majeed A. "Human Trafficking in the Era of Globalization : The Case of Trafficking in the Global Market Economy." Transcience Journal 2, no. 1 (2011): 54–71.
This article by Majeed A. Rahman provides readers with a basic understanding of the phenomenon of human trafficking – its definition, history, its purpose, and why it proliferates. Rahman believes that the main motivation for the conduct of human trafficking is money. For traffickers, the transport of victims is a lucrative business (estimated at $31.40 billion in profits annually), no wonder it is now one of the fastest growing organized crimes and the third most profitable, next to arms and drug trade. Meanwhile, victims are typically lured by the promise of higher income overseas. Internationally, human trafficking also plays a role: it provides cheap labor to an economy needing to become competitive and wanting to reduce production costs.
Rahman says that human trafficking is an international issue, and argues that it is gender and demographically specific. Roughly 80% of victims come from developing countries, while 8% comes from transition or weakened states and only 10.8% comes from the US and Western Europe. 43% of all victims are often forced into commercial sexual exploitation, a majority of whom are women and children. Data from the United States corroborate such statistics: 46% of victims of human trafficking enter into prostitution while the rest enter into modern forms of slavery (in sweatshops, domestic servitude and a...
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