Annotated Bibliography Paper: Neuro-Cognitive Processes (Annotated Bibliography Sample)
There are 4 articles that need an Annotated Bibliography. The format will include each reference in APA style followed by a 400-500 word summary of the article, including the student’s specific concerns/accolades about methodology or conclusions.
Each source must be correctly cited using APA Style, and should answer the following questions in 500 words or less for each source:
1. What is the author’s major argument? What is the hypothesis or hypotheses of the study?
2. What methods, or lens, is the author using to make his/her argument?
3. What type of evidence does this author use to make his/her argument and its effectiveness?
4. How effective was the method at testing the hypotheses? Would you do anything differently? Why or why not (what did you like or not like)?
5. I need 2 questions at the end of each article based on: What questions remain about this topic? Do you think the author drew valid conclusions from the results?
Straube, B. (2012). An overview of the neuro-cognitive processes involved in the encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of true and false memories. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 8(1), 1-10.
In this article, Straube argues that perceptions and memory lead to flawed reconstructions of reality that are disposed to false memories. The main argument of the author is that false memory occurs through three major sub-processes in the memory, which include encoding, consolidation, as well as the retrieval of the materials learned. During encoding, false memories can occur through visual images, self-referential or when spreading activation. When a person has a memory of an imagined occurrence that at a later time is remembered as a memory of an apparent event, it leads to a false memory. When the brain is encoding there is networking that occurs that results in confusion of the imagined and the perceived events. The author also points out that consolidation, which represents information that is stored in the memory contributes to false memory. For example, during sleep semantic generalization and updating of processes as a result of deceptive past occurrences can create false memories. During retrieval of information from the memory, false memories can also occur especially during cued or indicated recall.
The method that the author uses to make his argument is presenting theories and findings from previous research. Findings from previous authors show how false memories in regards to existing data on medial temporal lobe, as well as the medial and lateral prefrontal cortex and how they are connected in generation of true and false memories.
Straube largely relies on scientific studies done through a current functional magnetic imaging (FMRI) to make the arguments more effective. Through the FMRI studies, the author shows how encoding, consolation, and retrieval of messages occurs in the brain and how various factors in these processes can contribute to false memories. These studies examined earnestly various brain regions such as the temporal lobe and the lateral prefrontal lobes and how they relate to the formation of memories. Further, these findings were strengthened by theories and findings from previous studies to fully understand the idea of false memories and their effect on human beings.
The method the author used for testing the hypothesis was effective because it relied on scientific evidence and not personal opinions. The study examined recent available data regarding false memory formation rather than using of outdated information. This made the research more credible to the reader because it shows depth and accuracy. However, it would have been more effective if the researcher had conducted personal findings on that data to strengthen the arguments.
Do false memories affect major aspects of human thoughts? Can false memories be eliminated completely?
Dunsmoor, J. E., & Murphy, G. L. (2015). Categories, concepts, and conditioning: how humans generalize fear. Trends in cognitive sciences, 19(2), 73-77.
The authors main argument from this article is that classical or Pavlovian conditioning has been essential in determining how humans learn and avoid fear through their study of animal behaviors. However, the authors note that it is essential to consider the limitation of these traditional methods of animal models when applied to humans. They declare that it is possible to understand how human generalize fear by studying high-level cognition in regards to category-based induction, inferential reasoning, as well as through representation of conceptual knowledge. Through category-based induction people are naturally able to associate and transfer knowledge across theoretically related objects through induction. For ex...
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