Demonstration Project (Annotated Bibliography Sample)
The annotated bibliography should include 7-10 sentences describing the major points such as data description and general findings for each reading assignment (article or book chapters) listed above. Each reading should be listed in an appropriate heading/theme (i.e. organizational, individual determinants, and types of police officer behavior).
The bibliography contains very precise, detailed information that is essential to the topic. It employs the correct format and exhibits excellent use of spelling, punctuation, grammar and format. It also lists articles in appropriate subheadings.
University of Cincinnati
September 15, 2015
Alpert, G., MacDonald, J., and Dunham, R. (2005). Police suspicion and discretionary decision
making during citizen stops. Criminology, 43: 407-434. 5/5
Alpert, McDonald, and Dunhum (2005) established that empirical studies that examine the social process affecting how the police form suspicions are limited. However, the authors believed that the social process affecting how police officers form suspicions is important to the justice system. It is because the social process determines whether an individual will be arrested, which forms the basis for the entire justice system. It is the reason why the authors conducted a study to examine the situational, demographic, and racial variables and how police suspicion. Consequently, the authors collected data from an observational study in Savannah, Georgia. The results of the study indicate that the minority status influences how the police form suspicions about their suspects. The study also revealed that the police could form suspicions because of an individual's minority status, but the police did not try to stop the suspects from committing crimes based on their suspicions.
Black, D. (1971). The social organization of arrest. Stanford Law Review, 23: 1087â€“111. 3/5 (General findings are missing.)
Black (1971) wanted to examine the social conditions that influence a police officer's decision to make or not make an arrest. As a result, the author examined variables such as the legal gravity of the alleged crime, the suspect's race, the proof present in the field setting, the accuser's choice of police action, the social association between the suspect and plaintiff; the suspect's magnitude of respect toward the police; and how the police decide to handle an incident. Critical to the discussion is the fact that the author used a 1966 data, which was collected from an observational study in Washington D.C., Chicago, and Boston. Consequently, the author analyzed data from the observational study and provided descriptive statistics on all the variables mentioned above. Further, it is vital to highlight that Black (1971) results indicate that a suspect's race, association with the plaintiff, respect, proof, and gravity of the alleged crime affected how police officers form their suspicions. Ultimately, the author suggests topics such as arrest and political power as possible topics for further studies.
Engel, R., and Calnon, J. (2004). Examining the influence of drivers' characteristics during
traffic stops with police: Results from a national survey. Justice Quarterly, 21: 49â€“90. 4/5
The authors acknowledge that scholars concur that racial profiling affects how police officers make their decisions on whether to arrest suspects. It is because the authors cite that racial profiling could be traced back to the war on drugs. It is notable to highlight that Engel and Calnon (2004) conducted a thorough literature survey on the subject, because that author's cite numerous publications on the subject. Clearly, the subject of racial profiling is attracting attention from scholars in the criminal justice industry. It is the reason why the authors conducted a study to identify factors influencing police officers' decision after a traffic stop. It is crucial to note that the authors used the Police-Public Contact Survey data that was collected in 1999. The results indicated that Hispanic males and young blacks had higher chances of experiencing searches, citations, use of force, and arrests during...
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