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Workers Leaving the Factory by Louis Lumiere. History Research Paper (Research Paper Sample)


RESEARCH PAPER HISTORY OF THE DOCUMENTARY SPRING 2019 OBJECTIVE In this paper, students should choose to write about one photomechanically generated (still) image or (moving) image sequence from before 1970 that is considered part of the documentary tradition. In selecting their topic, students might consider what part, period, or aspect of the documentary tradition has appealed to them either in the readings, lectures and discussions associated with this class or elsewhere (shows they have visited in galleries, museums or screenings in theaters). When looking for an idea, students should also browse through the textbooks on LMS and the library stacks and consider the list of readings at the end of the syllabus for ideas. The paper should be driven by the image or image passage selected. After a brief introduction, students should open the paper with a description of the image, and all points they make in the paper should refer back to the image. Comparisons with other image/image passages are allowed, but ultimately, each section or argument of the paper should aim to demonstrate a different aspect of the same image, so that by the end of the paper, its reader sees the image differently from when they first encountered it. Questions to consider: To what event, phenomenon or subject does the image refer? What makes it a convincing image of this subject? Is the same thing that makes it convincing also what makes it interesting? Consider the techniques its makers have had to employ. Have they departed from a merely passive use of a recording apparatus? If so, who has control over the image? Is the subject involved in decision-making? And how has the image's makers modified the image and are you as viewer meant to see this modification? Is the viewer "in" on its artifice and constructedness? In addition to the circumstances of its production, think about how it was exhibited, screened or displayed, to whom, when, where, and why. Think about how long it is, how easy it is to look at or watch, how much of an effort is required of its viewer, whether they are meant to be seated or remain standing, how much the image is meant to consume their attention and if they are allowed to be distracted and simply enjoy the experience. Is it meant for a movie theater, a lecture hall, a night club or cafe, an art gallery or a museum? Is there any evidence to suggest that the image produced more than one kind of reaction? That it was controversial? Do you think this ambivalence in the image was intended by its makers? CHECKLIST -5 full pages -5 scholarly sources, 3 of which are books -title of paper is on paper -name also on paper -pages are numbered -text is in Times New Roman, 12pt, double-spacing, 1" margins top/bottom/left/right. -references have been added in-text -illustrations added following the text -bibliography comes at very end and does not include any films as sources -spelling and grammar have been checked -no colloquial language is used -numbers are written out unless in dates -no contractions ("do not," "cannot," etc.) USE SCHOLARLY SOURCES Please consult five scholarly sources for your research paper. You need to have consulted a minimum of three books for your paper. The remaining two sources can be further books or articles. None of your sources can be a film. All sources need to be textual. What counts as a scholarly source? Scholarly sources are those that have been approved by a group with recognized expertise in the field under discussion. Books published by University Presses fall into this category, as do articles published in peer-reviewed journals—journals where the editors send pieces out to be read by experts in the field before deciding to publish them. Strictly speaking, every other source could be called a popular source. Who or what can help me find scholarly sources? -Browsing is always a good way to get ideas The Stacks Textbooks on LMS Bibliography at the end of your syllabus Encyclopedia Britannica Academic Edition Oxford Art Online -Pratt Librarian liaison (our library liaison should be Cheryl Costello, who can be emailed at OR Chat-w/-A-Librarian Chat online with a librarian (Mon-Fri, 9am-5pm). -JSTOR Although it is by no means exhaustive, this is one of the larger databases of online academic journals. -Interlibrary Loan Request (ILL) ILLUSTRATIONS Your research paper must include at least one illustration. There is no maximum number of illustrations. Place your illustrations after your text. Do not place your illustrations in the body of text. Please make sure you reference your images in the body of the text (figure X) or (figures X-Y). And that you have provided them with a properly formatted reference. This reference should go under the illustration. MLA: Labyrinth. Dir. Jim Henson. Perf. David Bowie, Jennifer Connelly. Henson Associates, 1986. Sony Pictures, 2009. Blu-ray. [title.] [Dir. director.] [Perf. main performers.] [production company, release year.] [distributor, distribution year.] [medium.] APA: Lucas, G. (Producer), & Henson, J. (Director). (1986). Labyrinth [Motion picture]. United States: Henson Associates. [producer & director, with titles.] [(year).] [title] [[format].] [production country: production company.] Chicago: 28. Henson, Labyrinth. [fn. #.] [director last name, title.] [Shortened Chicago reference FOOTNOTING/BIBLIOGRAPHY Your papers should include references in-text and in a bibliography. In academic writing, nearly every reference to a source has two parts: the indication in the body of your paper that you’re referring to a source (in-text), and the publication information a reader needs to track that source down later (called your "bibliography"). The three citation styles—MLA, APA, and Chicago style footnotes—use different methods for that initial signal that a source is being used. Here are two very simple examples of how in-text referencing might look: In the Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle suggests that such people “think happiness is some plain or obvious thing, like pleasure, wealth, or honour” (2). The Nicomachean Ethics suggests that such people “think happiness is some plain or obvious thing, like pleasure, wealth, or honour” (Aristotle 2). Here are three examples of what your bibliographic entries might look like: MLA: Thernstrom, Melanie. Halfway Heaven: Diary of a Harvard Murder. New York: Doubleday, 1997. Print. [author, by last name.] [title.] [city of publication: publisher, year. medium.] APA: Thernstrom, M. (1997). Halfway heaven: Diary of a Harvard murder. New York, NY: Doubleday. [author, by last name, initial.] [(year).] [title.] [city of publication, state using the two letter postal abbreviation without periods: publisher.] Chicago: 1. Thernstrom, Halfway Heaven, 83. [fn. #.] [author last name, shortened title, page quoted.] [Shortened Chicago reference] Please note that the reference looks quite different depending on whether it is an article, a book, an edited collection of essays in book-form, a translated book, etc. Consult online reference services for precise information. Here is a sample humanities paper with referencing: cmos_formatting_and_style_guide/cmos_nb_sample_paper.html ACADEMIC INTEGRITY Scholarship, by its very nature, is an iterative process, with ideas and insights building one upon the other. Collaborative scholarship requires the study of other scholars’ work, the free discussion of such work, and the explicit acknowledgement of those ideas in any work that inform our own. This exchange of ideas relies upon a mutual trust that sources, opinions, facts, and insights will be properly noted and carefully credited. In practical terms, this means that, as students, you must be responsible for the full citations of others’ ideas in all of your research papers and projects; you must be scrupulously honest when taking your examinations; you must always submit your own work and not that of another student, scholar, or internet agent. Any breach of this intellectual responsibility is a breach of faith with the rest of our academic community. It undermines our shared intellectual culture, and it cannot be tolerated. For more information on academic integrity at Pratt, visit student-policies/community-standards/academic-integrity/


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Workers Leaving the Factory by Louis Lumiere
Workers leaving a factory in 1895: Adapted from Workers leaving a Factory Documentary by Lumiere Brothers
Film production makes for one of the first sectors of the entertainment industry to make use of the advancing technology witnessed across the civilization of human beings. The evolution of the film industry built around the development of new and enhanced technologies for capturing various images for the purpose of creating an entertaining the target audience. Photomechanical generation of still images, for instance, accounts for one of the major breakthroughs in the development of films or motion pictures. The landmark achievement in the production of an image sequence or moving images led to the production of various films across the three main categories including experimental, narrative fiction, and documentary films. The outlined categories of films functioned to provide equally diverse purposes in the entertainment industry. Documentary films, for instance, functioned to provide the audience with information about a particular aspect or element within the daily operations in society. Documentary film producers tend to provide unique points of view on a given subject, event, or occurrence in society and thus evoking different reactions from the audience CITATION Mcl12 \l 1033 (Mclane). Such films sought and continue to emphasis on developing a deeper understanding of the subject or main theme in the production. The Lumiere Brothers from France are recognized for their immense contribution to the film industry with their use of cinematographic production of films in the late 19th century CITATION Pru18 \l 1033 (Pruitt). One of their greatest works, Workers Leaving the Factory, is widely acknowledged as one of the earliest cinema productions. A comprehensive analysis of various elements of the film allows for the development of an informed understanding of the primary features of ancient documentary films and their influence on the audience.

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