5 pages/≈1375 words
Parameters of Water Pollution, Control measures and its Effect (Research Paper Sample)
Water Pollution Student Name Institution Water Pollution Water is an essential resource for the existence of all living organisms. In addition to agriculture, water is vital for fishery, industry and household uses. Today the ever-increasing population and urbanization are decreasing the availability of water globally and also affecting its quality. Water is unique in that it naturally cleanses itself of impurities. However when excessive amounts of harmful contaminants are deposited in it, the cleansing process becomes complicated. This is true because human beings today are using more material that pollutes water sources. For instance, the amount of fertilizer today is 15 times more than what was being used in 1945 (Moss, 2008). As a result, blue - green alga has been accumulating in the northern part of Lake Winnipeg and beaches are continually being closed. (Schwarzenbach, Egli, Hofstetter, von Gunten, & Wehrli, 2010) define water pollution as the contamination of water sources such as streams, seas, lakes and underground water by harmful substances. In the text, the authors go ahead and assert that population explosion and industrialization are the main causes of water pollution. Water pollution includes all elements that cannot be broken down by natural processes. Pollution can occur naturally in certain circumstances, for instance when water passes through highly acidic soils. More often than not, however, pollution is caused by human actions. Parameters of Water Pollution When domestic waste and industrial effluent is discharged into water bodies, it causes pollution. The contaminants that are released into the water are known as pollutants. The following parameters are used to measure the level of pollution in the water sources. Turbidity, temperature, electrical conductivity, color, and odor are constituents of physical parameters that indicate the level of contamination. Turbidity and color are visible evidence of pollution while bad odor and bitter taste though invisible, can also affirm water unfit for human consumption. Chemical parameters that can attest the level of contamination include chlorides, sulphates, metal ions and carbonates (Osborne, 1999). Biological parameters, on the other hand, include matter like algae, protozoa, and fungi. Pollution largely affects low as well as high plant and animal forms. The presence or absence of these life forms can be a good indicator of the level of contamination of a water source. Sources of Water Pollution A pollutant refers to any substance that is capable of changing the chemical, physical or biological composition of water. These have detrimental effects on living organisms as the water is used for domestic, industrial, agricultural purposes. Freshwater pollution can be categorized into surface water pollution and underground water pollution. Surface water pollution refers to the pollution of water sources on the face of the earth. These include rivers, lakes streams and so on. The sources of this kind of pollution are further categorized into two; Point and Non-point Sources and Natural and Anthropogenic sources. Point sources refer to a well-defined pollutant. These often emit contaminants into water bodies and good examples include domestic waste and factory waste. On the other hand, non-point sources are comparatively harder to locate as they are scattered over large areas. These sources deposit pollutants into environmental changes and account for the larger percentage of surface wa...
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