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Deductive and Inductive Approaches in Research (Research Paper Sample)

What is/are the difference(s) between an inductive and deductive approach to conducting a study on the relationship between academic performance and part-time employment among university students? source..

Running Head: A Brief Analysis of Deductive and Inductive Approaches in Research
Deductive and Inductive Approaches in Research
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The relationship between academic performance and part-time employment in Schools
The area of research has been instrumental in giving us the ken of knowledge that the contemporary society enjoys. The two broad areas of epistemology and methodology have formed the platform that has made this possible as they both seek for knowledge though in different ways. However, there is an area of convergence when it comes to all types of research and that regards the methodology. Two wide-ranging approaches are predominantly used; deductive and inductive reasoning. For one to carry out their research effectively, then understanding these two is fundamental.
Deductive research approach is a method that moves from general hypothesis to reach specific conclusions in the process. This involves formation of a theoretical hypothesis which forms the basis of the research and eventually, the theory is confirmed. The approach is also informally called top-down (Burney, 2006). The theoretical framework can be based on various studies such as Ervin Gofman’s “stigma” or any other acceptable stratagem Tesch, R. (1990). The main types of reasoning in deductive approaches are deduction, causation, and objectivity. This is why the approach finds its way in most quantitative studies. Inductive thinking on the other hand involves research from specific points to ultimate generalizations and theories. It is a bottom up approach that uses subjectivity, induction and open-ended thinking to come to its conclusions (Mertens, 2008). The researcher uses observed data to come up with a tentative hypothesis and a definite theory.
The two approaches can further be illustrated by juxtaposing the ever emotive debate of academic performance vis a vis part time employment. There are many views regarding the relationship between the two parameters of academics. A study carried out in 2003 found that 34% of freshmen in college have spent more than six hours outside classes, (Gose 1998). At the same time, 39% already have part time jobs. Due to conflicting conclusions on the relationship between academic performance and time spent working Mouw and Khanna (1993), and Ackerman and Gross (2003) among others a deductive approach can be taken with a hypothesis that states there is a relationship between academic performance and time spent in class as in Nonnis, S and Hudson,G (2006). After a comprehensive research, it was found out that time spent working does not affect the student’s performance. The same research could have been attempted by deduction where a sample of working students is studied over time to reach to a theory whether their working life is in any way affecting the students GPA at school.
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