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Explosive Growth of Urbanization in the Late 19th Century (Essay Sample)


General instructions:
Type your responses in ONE word document (both the essay and IDs should be completed in ONE word document) and upload your document to the link below titled “Unit 1 Exam.”
Essay: 70 points.
Choose ONE of the following essay topics to write about. Your essay should be 4-5 paragraphs in length. You need to include an introduction and conclusion. You may use information from the textbook and the lecture note ONLY. DO NOT use outside sources. Plagiarism will NOT be tolerated.
Describe the plans for Reconstruction offered by Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Johnson, and Congress. What was the goal of each plan? How did each plan accomplish its goal?
Discuss the various major strikes that occurred after the Civil War. Include the Great Railroad Strike of 1877, the Homestead strike, and the Pullman strike. What were the similarities and differences with each?
Describe the government’s policy toward Indians. How did this policy develop over the years, and what were the main factors that influenced its development?
Discuss how immigration to America changed in the latter half of the nineteenth century, and what was the response to that change?
Describe the explosive growth of urbanization in the late nineteenth century. What factors led to this growth, and where did the largest growth take place?
What were the reasons for American expansionism at the turn of the twentieth century? What justifications did Americans offer for expansionism?
Discuss the issue of conservation. What steps did President Theodore Roosevelt did to promote conservation?
Who were the muckrakers, and what was their contribution to American society
How and why were civil liberties curtailed during World War I? What was the effect of these curtailments?
Discuss the meaning and significance of the Harlem Renaissance.
Identifications: 80 points (10 points each)
Choose EIGHT of the following topics to identify/define. Each identification should be a short paragraph and should include the following: who, what, when, where, and significance. These should written in full sentences, NOT in bullet form. You may use information from the textbook and the lecture note ONLY. DO NOT use outside sources. Plagiarism will NOT be tolerated.
Freedman’s Bureau
Compromise of 1877
Haymarket Riot
Knights of Labor
Mississippi Plan (1890)
Sand Creek Massacre (1864)
Ghost Dance Movement
Chinese Exclusion Act
Social Darwinism
Plessy v. Ferguson
People’s Party (Populist Party)
USS Maine
Social gospel
Square Deal
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
Zimmerman Telegram
League of Nations


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Course Code/Title
Explosive Growth of Urbanization in the Late 19th Century
In the second half of the 19th Century, the United States (US) witnessed the rapid growth of towns and cities for a number of reasons. It was never the beginning in the growth of cities as New York, Boston, and Philadelphia were already established from the colonial settlement era. However, many factors converged in the late 19th Century to mark it as the period when the most significant level of urbanization was realized. People globally saw the United States as the land of opportunities and had started migrating into the land in large numbers. Industrialization, in particular, had in major ways affected people’s way of living and contributed to the emergence of factors such as electric lighting, communications improvements, intercity transportation, and the rise of skyscrapers. The subsequent discussion offers more insight into the role of the factors mentioned above in elevating the state of urbanization in the country.
Electric lighting is an indispensable factor when it comes to the talk on urbanization. The incandescent light bulb was an invention borne by the popular Thomas Edison in 1879. Edison is referred to as the father of inventions and this one, in particular, ensured that homes and factories where the low and middle-class individuals lived and worked were lit. The dissemination of the electric power to the rural areas was challenging meaning that it was available in cities only. It even got better as the design of the alternating current (AC) system by Nikola Tesla implied that power could be distributed to users, miles away from the source. This capability allowed the expansion of urban centers. Lighting allowed for the increase in production hours and consequently, need for more labor. More population came into the cities. Because of these developments, cities became the hub of economic activities even after sunset.
An exponential rise in the population and growth of cities, a significant problem that in efficient travel was borne. At the time, the most common infrastructure used was either rail or canal and mainly deployed for connection of cities to each other. Omnibuses were becoming ineffective in that horses had to rest and furthermore, their manure became another menace. The electric trolley at the time became a much-needed invention. They were reminiscent of the omnibus but the difference is that they used electricity as the as the source of energy. Major cities elevated the use of electric trolleys to an extent that trolley lines were used to escape congestion because of increased population. At the near-end of the century, cities such as Boston and New York paved way for the establishment of subway systems. Skyscrapers on the other hand, provided the excellent to the housing challenging, as there was an ever-increasing need for space to house the increasing population.
Communication was another intriguing aspect at this time. At the center of this conundrum was the telephone

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