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Pages:
5 pages/≈1375 words
Sources:
4 Sources
Level:
Harvard
Subject:
Health, Medicine, Nursing
Type:
Essay
Language:
English (U.K.)
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Topic:

Infectious Disease, Biological and Drug Defence (Essay Sample)

Instructions:

Assignment Brief
Part a) Preparation of an information leaflet entitled “Infectious Disease and its Control”, written to inform
voluntary health workers overseas. (1750 words limit).
Part b) 40 minute controlled assignment written in class time, without notes or books. 
Part a)
In this assignment you need to:
• Identify a range of organisms responsible for infectious diseases (LO 1.0)
• Explain how these organisms cause disease (LO 1.0)
• Outline how diseases can be transmitted by vectors (LO 2.0)
• Explain how infectious diseases can enter the body (LO 3.0)
• Explain how the body’s non-specific defence systems help to prevent infection (LO 3.0)
• Explain how behavioural practices such as hygiene control help to prevent infection (LO 4.0)
• Explain how drugs can be utilised to treat certain diseases only (LO 6)
• Use relevant examples throughout
• Use diagrams/charts/tables or similar to support written explanations
• Use an appropriate format for an easily read information leaflet

Part b) 
This controlled assignment will last 40 minutes. You will not be permitted to communicate with other students or the tutor during the assignment. 
Answer the following question:
a. The specific human immune system is divided into two main parts: humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity
Outline these two types of immunity
b. Consider the diagram below and explain how the ‘humoral’ response can give rise to ‘acquired immunity’
(LO 5.0)
 
Learning Outcomes Assessment Criteria Achieved
Y / N
The student should be able to: The student has achieved this outcome because s/he can:
1.0 Understand the biological diversity and key features of organisms that can cause infectious disease 1.1 Identify the biological diversity of organisms that can cause disease
1.2 Explain how the structure of an organism enables it to function as a pathogen
2.0 Demonstrate an understanding of vector-borne disease transmission 2.1 Explain the key features of vector borne diseases
3.0 Show an understanding of how the body is exposed to potential infection and how it protects itself from infection 3.1 Explain how infectious organisms can be transmitted and enter the human body
3.2 Evaluate the body’s different non-specific defences against infection
4.0 Know how behavioural practices can protect against infectious disease 4.1 Discuss how hygienic procedures and personal awareness in different situations can enhance the body’s defence mechanisms
5.0 Demonstrate an understanding of the specific immune defence mechanism 5.1 Relate the major components of the immune system to their role in the specific immune response
5.2 Explain the specific immune response
6.0 Demonstrate an understanding of how infectious disease can be controlled and treated by drug use 6.1 Evaluate the use of drugs and their specificity as control and treatment methods for causal organisms with different biological structures and functioning
6.2 Explain, with examples, how drug resistance can arise
Grading the assignment 
Once the learning outcomes for this assignment are achieved, the student is eligible for grading against specific grade descriptors (these are identified on the following pages)
There are no descriptor components for Pass. Students achieve a Pass by meeting the requirements of all the assessment criteria of a unit
1 Understanding of the subject Only the components that are ticked apply to this assignment
Merit Distinction
The student, student’s work or performance: The student, student’s work or performance
a demonstrates a very good grasp of the relevant knowledge base √ a demonstrates an excellent grasp of the relevant knowledge base √
b is generally informed by the major conventions and practices of the area of study √ b is consistently informed by the major conventions and practices of the area of study √
c demonstrates very good understanding of the different perspectives or approaches associated with the area of study. c demonstrates excellent understanding of the different perspectives or approaches associated with the area of study.
2 Application of knowledge Only the components that are ticked apply to this assignment
Merit Distinction
The student, student's work or performance
makes use of relevant a The student, student's work or performance makes use of relevant a
• ideas √ • ideas √
• facts √ • facts √
• theories √ • theories √
• perspectives • perspectives
• models √ • models √
• concepts √ • concepts √
with either 
b breadth or depth that goes beyond the minimum required to Pass
and/or with both
b breadth and depth 
and/or
c very good levels of c excellent levels of
• consistency √ • consistency √
• precision • precision
• accuracy • accuracy
• insight √ • insight √
• analysis √ • analysis √
• synthesis • synthesis
• creativity • creativity
4 Use of information Only the components that are ticked apply to this assignment
Merit Distinction
The student, student’s work or performance: The student, student’s work or performance
a identifies new information from sources which are generally appropriate √ a identifies new information from sources which are consistently appropriate √
b makes some use of new information √ b makes extensive use of new information √
c generally appraises the relevance and value of new information accurately c consistently appraises the relevance and value of new information accurately
d shows a very good grasp of the meaning and significance of new information d shows an excellent grasp of the meaning and significance of new information
e generally combines or synthesises information with outcomes that are accurate and appropriate √

source..
Content:

Infectious Disease and its Control
Student’s Name
Institution Affiliation
Course
Instructor
Date
Infectious Disease and its Control
Introduction
Infectious diseases are disease caused by microorganisms and are transferable from one person to another. These infections make the largest percentage of hospital-acquired infections. Infectious disease can spread directly or indirectly from one individual to another ADDIN CSL_CITATION { "citationItems" : [ { "id" : "ITEM-1", "itemData" : { "DOI" : "10.1371/journal.pone.0000747", "ISSN" : "19326203", "PMID" : "17712403", "abstract" : "The control of emergence and spread of infectious diseases depends critically on the details of the genetic makeup of pathogens and hosts, their immunological, behavioral and ecological traits, and the pattern of temporal and spatial contacts among the age/stage-classes of susceptible and infectious host individuals.", "author" : [ { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Bolzoni", "given" : "Luca", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" }, { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Real", "given" : "Leslie", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" }, { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Leo", "given" : "Giulio", "non-dropping-particle" : "De", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" } ], "container-title" : "PLoS ONE", "id" : "ITEM-1", "issued" : { "date-parts" : [ [ "2007" ] ] }, "title" : "Transmission heterogeneity and control strategies for infectious disease emergence", "type" : "article-journal", "volume" : "2" }, "uris" : [ "/documents/?uuid=8751e3e5-da9f-48c4-b3ee-ee038f9801cc" ] } ], "mendeley" : { "formattedCitation" : "(Bolzoni et al. 2007)", "plainTextFormattedCitation" : "(Bolzoni et al. 2007)", "previouslyFormattedCitation" : "(Bolzoni et al. 2007)" }, "properties" : { "noteIndex" : 0 }, "schema" : "https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json" }(Bolzoni et al. 2007). Besides, some zoonotic infectious diseases of animals are transmittable to humans. Worldwide infectious diseases kill many people than any other single cause
Organisms responsible for infectious diseases
Pathogenic microorganisms are responsible for the infectious infections. These can be broadly be classified to include the bacteria, viruses and parasites. Bacteria are organisms that survive in appropriate media and classified to be either gram positive or gram negative depending on the gram staining ADDIN CSL_CITATION { "citationItems" : [ { "id" : "ITEM-1", "itemData" : { "DOI" : "10.1371/journal.pone.0000747", "ISSN" : "19326203", "PMID" : "17712403", "abstract" : "The control of emergence and spread of infectious diseases depends critically on the details of the genetic makeup of pathogens and hosts, their immunological, behavioral and ecological traits, and the pattern of temporal and spatial contacts among the age/stage-classes of susceptible and infectious host individuals.", "author" : [ { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Bolzoni", "given" : "Luca", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" }, { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Real", "given" : "Leslie", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" }, { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Leo", "given" : "Giulio", "non-dropping-particle" : "De", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" } ], "container-title" : "PLoS ONE", "id" : "ITEM-1", "issued" : { "date-parts" : [ [ "2007" ] ] }, "title" : "Transmission heterogeneity and control strategies for infectious disease emergence", "type" : "article-journal", "volume" : "2" }, "uris" : [ "/documents/?uuid=8751e3e5-da9f-48c4-b3ee-ee038f9801cc" ] } ], "mendeley" : { "formattedCitation" : "(Bolzoni et al. 2007)", "plainTextFormattedCitation" : "(Bolzoni et al. 2007)", "previouslyFormattedCitati...
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