6 pages/≈1650 words
An Inquiry into a Hypothetical Problem on Ethics (Essay Sample)
Please have someone which is good at doing philosophy paper to do it, and provide me an outline or draft in advance. Thank you so much. some tips for this paper ^_^ write the pros and cons for each 3 theories relating to the topic...define the theory first, support with names of philosophers and their ideas and relate to the topic. source..
Kant, Virtue and Utility in Business Ethics:
An Inquiry into a Hypothetical Problem on Ethics
This paper seeks to use the theories of virtue ethicism (Platonian/ Aristotelian), Kantianism (deontologist) and utilitarianism (consequentialist) in light of a hypothetical ethical problem concerning the usage of unknowingly citizens for an anti-cancer drug experiment. The problem posed an ethical question which presents to us a choice: will we choose the greater good (that is, the greater welfare for the general population and generations to come) in the form of pushing the anti-cancer experiment forward, or will we choose the welfare of a smaller group (who of course are still humans) and content oneself in finalizing the drug without perfect assurance of its effectiveness and safety to the eventual users?
The two major thinkers of utilitarian ethics are John Stuart Mill and Jeremy Bentham. In sum, utilitarianism as a philosophy seeks to problematize the practical question of â€˜what makes our decisions ethical or not?` As a consequentialist theory, utilitarianism proposes that the yardstick of any ethical decision can be found in the perceived consequences of each position; that is, the ethical bedrock of an action is measured according to the extent of which the action produces pleasure or happiness. Hence, utilitarianism focuses primarily on the â€˜utility` of every ethical element and argues that ethical decisions must be first and foremost grounded on their eventual â€˜effect` (Mill 2000, 92). The more happiness an action produces more than the other action, the more it proves to be the more â€˜ethical choice`. In an effort to make the theory more precise, Bentham conceptualized the felicific calculus, an algorithm which seeks to offer a standard criteria in â€˜measuring` happiness:
1 Intensity: How strong is the pleasure?
2 Duration: How long will the pleasure last?
3 CertaintyÂ orÂ uncertainty: How likely or unlikely is it that the pleasure will occur?
4 Propinquity or remoteness: How soon will the pleasure occur?
5 Fecundity: The probability that the action will be followed by sensations of the same kind.
6 Purity: The probability that it will not be followed by sensations of the opposite kind.
7 Extent: How many people will be affected?
Quite simply, utilitarianism is a reductionist theory, as it seeks to define (or in fact â€˜reduce`) ethics and morality into a mere calculation of hedonistic affect. Nonetheless, the reduction of the ethic into pleasure or happiness makes sense, as Mill argues, for every human action is inclined to be directed towards achieving happiness rather than destruction or harm (Mill 2000, 91). Hence, as a general ethical rule, utilitarianism is geared towards measuring the aggregate happiness an action may produce to the greater number of concerned indi...
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