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Consider How The Five Core Social Motives: Understanding, Controlling (Essay Sample)


Please Answer Each Question Separately. Peer-Reviewed Sources.
Question 1: Consider how the five core social motives (belonging, understanding, controlling, enhancing self, trusting others) contribute to people's pseudoscientific beliefs. Pick one and discuss.
Question 2: In his talk, Dr. Scott Lilienfeld defines pseudoscience as an imposter of science and makes a number of distinctions between science and pseudoscience. Based on this information, find an example of pseudoscience to share with the class. Make sure to explain why you consider it to be an example of pseudoscience.
Question 3: Correlation does not equal causation. A correlation potentially represents any of three possible causal relationships between variables: Variable A causes Variable B, Variable B causes Variable A, or some third variable causes both Variable A and Variable B.
For example, there is a well-documented correlation between weight and health: The higher someone's body mass index, the greater likelihood that they are experiencing health problems. This correlation may indicate that obesity causes certain health problems (as is often communicated in the media), but it's also possible that certain health problems might cause obesity (like diabetes, for example), or that some third variable (such as stress, lack of sleep, genetics, etc.) causes both obesity and the health problem.
Give an example of two variables that are correlated with each other and discuss what this correlation reveals about the possible causal associations between the variables (like I have done above).


Institutional Affiliation
Question 1: Belonging
Pseudoscience entails beliefs or practices that are perceived scientific, but lack any evidence to back the claims through scientific methods that are reliable or tested to achieve a scientific status. Resultantly, pseudoscience is characterized by claims that are vague, contradictory, exaggerated or claims that cannot be proved (Thyer & Pignotti, 2010). In this context, the existence of such claims is reliant on confirmation by a group of people rather than evidence that supports scientific claims. Arguably, people who present and subscribe to such claims lack openness to evaluation by experts or engagement in systematic processes to develop rational theories. The boundary between science and pseudoscience is drawn by the ethical and political implications that emerge as well as philosophical and scientific issues. Pseudoscience is inherently pejorative since it is perceived by people who do not agree with the claims as inaccurate and deceptive. Resultantly the people who practice or advocate for pseudoscience often dispute this characterization. These insights show that the people who believe in pseudoscience relate at the same level and act as a group (Thyer & Pignotti, 2010). Among the core social motives, belonging is one of the recognizable traits that exist among these people. The social motives allude to the underlying psychological process that compels people to think, feel, and behave when involved with other people. In this light, the social motive of belonging is relevant in pseudoscience to make the people who believe in a particular ideology to fit better into the groups. Subsequently, these people and their ideas have a higher chance of survival because the group gives them bargaining power.
The core social value of belonging is centered on the ideology that people need a strong and stable relationship with others. Subsequently, belonging to a particular group offers the individuals the capability to psychologically and physically survive. Otherwise, the claim by a single individual could not survive without support from other people with the call for proof and scientific proof from people who refute the claim. In this light, pseudoscience is fostered and sustained by the beliefs that exist among the people. Contradictions among the group compromise the belief and this might result in elimination. Fundamentally, the sense of belonging gives people the motivation to pursue an ideology due to the support a group offers. The connection between people in the group gives an individual an identity, which is critical to the social existence of the person.
Pseudoscience is reliant on a range of social and cognitive thinking skills that are linked to the social motive of belonging. For instance, people will engage in certain practices to feel that they are part of a culture. To protect their beliefs from the scientific and technological aspects, these people seek security in the group. With the changing landscape of science and technology, it becomes more imperative for people who advocate for these claims to be part of a group. Such sense of belonging protects them from the increasing scientific literacy

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