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Digestive system (Essay Sample)


Describe the anatomy of the digestive system. -Discuss the function of chief, parietal, enteroendocrine and mucous cells. Be sure to discuss any secretions released by these cells.


The Digestive System
The human digestive structure is one of the largest and most advanced structures in the human body. It consists of a series of glands and organs that processes food and is uniquely designed to perform a particular role of turning food into energy that human beings require to stay alive and also packaging the remains for removal. The digestive system is basically a long, twisting pipe that starts from the mouth (entrance) to the anus (exit) as well as a few other organs (such as pancreas and liver) that produce digestive substances.
The digestive tract begins from the mouth; this is where digestion starts when we eat. Saliva mixes with food and begins breaking it down for it to be easily absorbed by your body. The esophagus which is located in the throat receives food from the mouth and through peristalsis (a sequence of muscular contractions) it transports food to the stomach. The cells found in the stomach lining exude acid and powerful enzymes accountable for the food breakdown process. After stomach contents are processed adequately, they are passed into the small intestine. The small intestine has three segments; the jejunum, duodenum, and ileum. Through peristalsis, enzymes released by the bile from the liver and pancreas breaks the food down. The duodenum is responsible for the constant process of food breaking-down. The large intestine is an organ responsible for waste processing so that draining the insides becomes easy and convenient. After the absorption process, the large intestine become full of stool and its contents are emptied into the rectum as the elimination process begins.(Bhisa,2007)
The rectum connects the colon to the anus, it obtains feaces from the large intestines and an individual knows there is waste to be emptied; it holds the feaces till evacuation happens. The anus has an upper lining dedicated to sense contents from the rectum. It lets you know the nature of these contents i.e. gas, solid or liquid. Sphincter muscles in the anus are significant in allowing the stool control.
Parietal cells are stomach epithelial cells that secrete Gastric Acid (HCI).They are located in glands known as the fungus. Secretion of acid by these cells creates conditions for the early stages of digestion and plays an essential role in disinfecting the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract. The Chief cells are located near the base of the glands and are typical-looking protein-secreting cells. It is a cell in the stomach that releases gastric lipase, and chymosin, pepsinogen. It works in combination with the parietal cell that secretes gastric acid to convert pepsinogen into pepsin. (Eroschenko, 2013)
The Enteroendocrine cells form the basis of the largest endocrine system in the body. They secrete numerous regulatory molecules which control homeostatic functions, particularly postprandial secretion and motility. The gastrin is the main secretory product o...
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