PICO Analysis of Dementia, Delirium, and Depression (Essay Sample)
A PICO analysis is used to pose a focused clinical question to which you find appropriate evidence-based answers. The PICO question should include the patient or population (P), anticipated intervention (I), comparison group or current standard (C), and outcome desired (O). In this Assignment, you develop a question related to dementia, delirium, or depression. Through your PICO analysis, you explore various resources and examine current evidence to answer the question you develop.
Select one of the following disorders as your topic: dementia, delirium, or depression.
Review the guidelines in the “Literature Review Matrix” document in this week’s Learning Resources.
Think about a research question around your issue as indicated in Part I: PICO Analysis of Research Topic.
Consider the resources you will use, search terms and criteria, and Boolean search strings as indicated in Part II: Search Strategy.
Using the Walden Library and other appropriate databases, locate five articles related to your PICO question. At least one article must be a systematic review. All of the articles should be primary sources.
Reflect on the five articles you selected as indicated in Part III: Analysis of Literature. Consider the conceptual framework/theory, main finding, research method, strengths of study, weaknesses, and level of evidence for each article.
Consider how to use the summaries in Part III to create an evidence table. Use this evidence table to determine appropriate treatment options for patients who present with the disorder you selected as your topic.
Formulate a question around the disorder you selected as indicated in Part I: PICO Analysis of Research Topic.
Identify the resources you will use, search terms and criteria, and Boolean search strings as indicated in Part II: Search Strategy.
Summarize the five articles you selected as indicated in Part III: Analysis of Literature. Describe the conceptual framework/theory, main finding, research method, strengths of study, weaknesses, and level of evidence for each article.
Create an evidence table based on the article summaries in Part III. Describe appropriate treatment options for patients based on this evidence table.
P- Depressive patients
I- non-pharmacological interventions such as exercises, physical activities and music
C- Pharmacological interventions Selective Serotonin uptake
O- Reduced depression levels
Question: In depressive patients (P), is the use of non-pharmacological interventions such as exercises, physical activities and music (I) compared to pharmacological interventions such as selective serotonin uptake inhibitors (C) effective in reducing depression levels? (O)
Part II Search Strategy
Research or Professional Organizations
Experts in the Field to Consult
Books, Encyclopedias, Handbooks
British Journal of Music Therapy
Anxiety and Depression Association of America
Authors of analyzed studies will be contacted for information on unpublished materials
General search engines such as Google.com
Summary of the Literature
Conceptual Framework/ Theory
Strengths of Study
Level of Evidence
Erkkilä, J., Punkanen, M., Fachner, J., Ala-Ruona, E., Pöntiö, I., Tervaniemi, M., ... & Gold, C. (2011). Individual music therapy for depression: randomised controlled trial. The British journal of psychiatry, 199(2), 132-139.
Effectiveness of music therapy combined with standard care compared to standard care only in treating depression among working-age people
Combining music therapy with standard care is more effective than standard care only in the treatment of depression
Randomization, clinical setting
Open label study
Maratos, A., Gold, C., Wang, X., & Crawford, M. (2008). Music therapy for depression. Cochrane database of systematic reviews, (1).
Effectiveness of music therapy compared with other therapies in the treatment of depression; Effectiveness of the various forms of music therapy in reducing depression symptoms.
The authors have not provided the results of their review
Database selection, Inclusion criteria
Authors did not state the validity of the reviewed articles, No results
Gartlehner, G., Wagner, G., Matyas, N., Titscher, V., Greimel, J., Lux, L., ... & Lohr, K. N. (2017). Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for major depressive disorder: review of systematic reviews. BMJ open, 7(6), e014912.
Summarise the evidence on the available pharmacological and non-pharmacological depression treatment options to evaluate their efficacy and effects
Compared to pharmacological treatments, most of the non-pharmacological depression treatment options are not evidence based.
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