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Research the Historical Development of Theory X and Y (Essay Sample)


After your recent successful presentation for the management team at company XYZ, the board has invited you for another written report at the next board meeting. Remember, now you are the so-called guru of management theory. For this particular report, you must apply a management theory to the current situation surrounding company XYZ. Finally, be sure to teach the board members on the overview of the historical development behind management theory.
Present one management theory that interests you. Identify the theory’s structure (what are the components). Interpret the overall historical development behind the theory. Use at least two academic journal articles to support the theory. Compare and contrast it with another management theory. Finally, include you own conclusion or solution for the company.
Your paper should be in APA style citing references as appropriate. Use at least 5 but no more than 10 references with at least 3 references from journal.


Theory X Theory Y
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation
Theory X Theory Y
Today managers are faced with different types of problems emanating from employees and the work environment. For example, company XYZ is experiencing a problem of low productivity resulting from poorly motivated employees. Solving such problems at the workplace may not be easy. However, there are management theories that can be applied to solve most of the problems arising from the employees in the workplace. Some of the common theories applied to solve the problems relating to workers in most companies is the theory X theory Y by administrator and Professor Douglas McGregor. Consequently, paper seeks to employ McGregor’s theory X theory Y because it is pioneered on matters relating to employee motivation which is the current problem at XYZ. Particularly,the papers seeks to provide a brief historical development and foundation of the theory and its relevancy to the problem at hand.Also, the paper will also look at findings from studies that have been carried out to assess the effectiveness of the theory in improving employee's motivation.
Historical Development of Theory X and Y
Theory X and Y was developed by Douglas McGregor in 1960 after having worked for many years as a manager confronted by different kinds of management problems. Over the years, the theory has largely influenced managers' perception of employees. McGregor developed Theory X and Y from a philosophical point view of human beings. He based the theory on Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. McGregor grouped the human needs into two, high order (theory X) and lower order (Theory Y)(Miner, 2012). He suggests that the managers could use either of the two to motivate the employees.
This theory was formulated with the main reason of improving satisfaction among the employees in at workplace by promoting motivation(Miner, 2012). McGregor develops the ideas in theory from the point of argument that workers are not cogs in a company. Productivity is a function of motivation(Miner, 2012).
Components of the Theory
As already pointed out, this theory is made up of two parts; theory X and theory Y. Theory X is based on the perception that employees are naturally lazy and dislike work. This makes the managers employ punitive measures to compel the workers to work(Shafritz, Ott, & Jang, 2015). According to this theory, managers should actively follow up the works to ensure they do work. Theory X has the following assumptions: workers dislike work, workers avoid responsibility as they are not closely supervised, workers have to be forced and threatened to work, workers have to be controlled, and that the workers have to be enticed to produce results otherwise they have no ambition to work(Shafritz, Ott, & Jang, 2015).
On the other hand, Theory Y is based on a participatory approach to management. Management is decentralised...
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