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4 pages/≈1100 words
10 Sources
Biological & Biomedical Sciences
English (U.S.)
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Environmental Effects Of Antibiotic Resistance In Pathogens Found In Water Systems (Essay Sample)


I have attached the 10 sources that you need to use for writing the research paper. Do not include the title and reference page in this order. The 4 pages for the order need to be purely just the research paper and not reference or title page. the question of the research is already mentioned in topic. so just use the provided sources to prove and back up your point that the antibiotic resistance can have harmful effects on the environment if the waste water treatment plant is not good and all the industries just dump antibiotics in the water then pathogens can get resistant to the antibiotics and cause harm to environment. because the theme of this paper (theme not subject) is environmental microbiology. so need to write how pathogens in water system get resistant to antibiotics through waste water dumped in water system and how this can have bad effects on the environment. And use the sources to back up your point and arguments and then towards end come up with solutions for this and have a solid conclusion and see how you can fill in gaps between the knowledge you get from sources and what should be done and what can happen in future and whats already happening.
please message me for any questions and it would be really helpful if I could see rough draft once you are halfway through ? so I can help you correct anything before you end up finishing the entire paper and so I don't have to wait for entire order to be done and then see if it needs revision.


Environmental Effects of Antibiotic Resistance in Pathogens Found in Water Systems
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Environmental Effects of Antibiotic Resistance in Pathogens Found in Water Systems
Antibiotics are extensively used to treat bacterial infections in human beings and livestock. In addition to their use in aquaculture, antibiotics are also very useful in accelerating the growth of livestock. The challenge with antibiotics is that the patient metabolizes only a small proportion of the drug and most of the drug content is discharged as a waste. The waste is released into sewage systems in the hospitals or even released directly in the water bodies when used at home. Animal feces and antibiotic contamination finds its way into sewerage treatment plants and eventually into the water. As a result of increased environmental pollution, antibiotic resistance in urban aquatic environments has continued to increase leaving devastating effects on the environment, human beings, and animals. Tracking and tackling antibiotic contamination is critical in determining the sources and solutions of antibiotic resistance and reducing contamination in aquatic ecosystems.
High concentrations of antibiotic chemicals are used in fish farms contributing significantly to the contaminations of water systems. Additionally, antibiotics such as streptomycin are utilized mainly in fruit farming where they are sprayed directly into the environment, and may enter the watershed after rain events (Kummerer, 2004). Other uses of antibiotics are in the food industry, bee-keeping, glue industries, and many others. That implies that there is a high potential for the antibiotics to be released into the environment (Ju et al., 2016). When these antibiotics are disposed into water bodies such as rivers and ponds, it becomes a threat to the environment. Antibiotics released into the environment pose a danger to living organisms when pathogens become resistant to the drug component found in the antibiotics.
How Pathogens in Water Systems Become Resistant to Antibiotics
Significant traces of antibiotic-resistant DNA have been found in the products of sewage and wastewater treatment. The antibiotic residues usually get reintroduced into the environment through water supply and wastewater treatment plants furthering the spread of the antibiotics resistance. Researchers and scholars have devoted their time to studying the development and spread of potentially harmful microbial genes, including antibiotic resistance, in the wastewater treatment plants and processes (Wellington et al., 2013). The studies have indicated that even a low concentrations of antibiotics lead to resistance of a wide spectrum of antibiotics. Most of the antibiotics we consume are metabolized in our bodies (Nnadozie, Kumari & Bux, 2017). However, some of the antibiotic components are excreted to the environment after which they are then ferried to the wastewater treatment plants. In the treatment plants, the wastewater is treated using a membrane bioreactor. The treatment method uses both biological methods and filtration processes.
For the biological treatment process, the plant uses microscopic bacteria to destroy the pathogens in the waste products. While consuming and destroying the organic waste, the microscopic bacteria find the antibiotics and express resistance genes that alter the effectiveness of the medicine (Backhaus & Grimme, 1999). The resistant genes are transferred from the parent to daughter cells and neighbors through a process called horizontal gene transfer.
Increased microbial resistance has been on the rise with accelerated mobility of resistant genes prevalent from one bacterium to others. The DNA in the resistance genes can be transferred from one bacterium to anothe...

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