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4 pages/≈1100 words
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Biological & Biomedical Sciences
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Topic:

Cells of the Immune System and the Lymphatic Circulation (Essay Sample)

Instructions:

submission of a paper (4-5 pages) about Chapter 15: "Mind and body."
You should summarize the chapter, giving the main points understood. No direct copy/paste is allowed.
The resources is the Chapter 15 Mind and Body in the Book.

source..
Content:


Mind and Body Summary
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation
Mind and Body Summary
The biological relationship between the mind and the body is captured in the new field of study known as psychoneuroimmunology; the study of how the nervous and immune system interact and influence each other. The new field of study is developed upon the central organizing theory, which asserts that the mind affects the functioning of the body’s immune system through nerve action. The primary argument in the book is that since the immune system maintains health, the emotions and the mind can affect the functioning of the immune system, hence creating a mental state that affect a person’s health.
The Immune System Maintains Health
The chief purpose of the body’s immune system is to defend the body from pathogens as well as other disease causing microorganisms. The immune system is a self-arranged ecosystem of cells where cells form a corporative unit and communication network that crosschecking the whole body to make sure all parts are running well.
Cells of the Immune System and the Lymphatic Circulation
White blood cells are basically the cells that make up the entire immune system. The white blood cells are developed in the spleen, thymus and the bone marrow before being transported across all body parts by the bloodstream (Minkoff & Baker, 2004). From the bloodstream, the white blood cells are transported to the lymphatic circulation to reach the lymph nodes via the tiny spaces between the cells in the tissues.
The lymphatic circulation not only facilitates the flow of white blood cells as the lymph fluid, but it also helps to discharge damaged cells and wastes from the tissues and facilitate the immune system monitoring and cells and molecules in different parts of the body tissues. In addition, the Lymphocyte secretes antibody that kills virally infected cells and cancerous cells.
Innate Immunity
The innate immune system refers to the part of an immune system that facilitates growth and repair of injured tissues. Essentially, the innate immune cells rallies to remove pathogens, wastes as well as damaged cells and repair wounds under a process known as inflammation. Individuals learn that they are infected because of the inflammation process which prompts the macrophages to secrete cytokines that induce fever (Minkoff & Baker, 2004). At this point the brain is involved as the induced fever is detected by hypothalamus.
Specific immunity
The specific immune system refers to a secondary acquired immune system after a microbial attack that protects the body against future exposures of the same microbial. Specific immunity occurs when the macrophages reach the lymphatic vessels carrying microorganism to the lymph nodes, thus exposing the infectious molecules to other immune cells. Lymphocytes are the white blood cells of the specific immune system, and are split into two types, namely, B lymphocytes (B cells), and the T lymphocytes (T cells) (Minkoff & Baker, 2004).
The B cells are responsible in making antibodies, a blood protein that responds to specific disease causing molecules called antigens. The T cells, also known as the cytotoxic T cell can directly destroy cancerous cells and other forms of viruses.
The entire immune system has a memorizing capacity that can recognize over 1011 (100,000,000,000) different antigens. The T and B cells in the immune system comprise of millions of cells that can combat to over 1011 different antigens (Minkoff & Baker, 2004).
Immunological Memory
T and B cells produce a copy of their cells after attacking and defeating specific viruses of bacteria. The copy of memory...

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