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Reading Exercise: Copi, Irving M. Introduction to Logic, 14th Edition (Coursework Sample)

Instructions:

Topic 5 Reading Exercises
Copi, Irving M. Introduction to Logic, 14th Edition. Routledge.
EXERCISE A INSTRUCTIONS
State the converses of the following propositions, and indicate which of them are equivalent to the given propositions:
PROBLEMS
1. No people who are considerate of others are reckless drivers who pay no attention to traffic regulations.
2. All graduates of West Point are commissioned officers in the U.S. Army.
3. Some European cars are overpriced and underpowered automobiles.
4. No reptiles are warm-blooded animals.
5. Some professional wrestlers are elderly persons who are incapable of doing an honest day's work.
EXERCISE B INSTRUCTIONS
State the obverses of the following propositions:
PROBLEMS
1. Some college athletes are professionals.
2. No organic compounds are metals.
3. Some clergy are not abstainers.
4. No geniuses are conformists.
5. All objects suitable for boat anchors are objects that weigh at least fifteen pounds.
EXERCISE C INSTRUCTIONS
State the contrapositives of the following propositions and indicate which of them are equivalent to the given propositions.
PROBLEMS
1. All journalists are pessimists.
2. Some soldiers are not officers.
3. All scholars are nondegenerates.
4. All things weighing less than fifty pounds are objects not more than four feet high.
5. Some noncitizens are not nonresidents.
EXERCISE D INSTRUCTIONS
If “All socialists are pacifists” is true, what may be inferred about the truth or falsehood of the following propositions? That is, which can be known to be true, which can be known to be false, and which are undetermined?

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Content:

Topic Reading Exercise
Student's Name
Institution
Supervisor's Name
Date
Introduction
A proposition is an assertion of a statement that usually expresses an opinion or a judgment. In most cases, propositions are mainly used in a sentence to express an opinion or to lead the reader to a particular direction or point.
Exercise 1:
1. People who pay attention to traffic regulations are not reckless drivers as they are considerate of others.
2. All commissioned officers of the U.S Army are graduates of West Point.
3. Some European cars are overpriced and underpowered automobiles.
4. Warm-blooded animals are not reptiles...
5. There are elderly persons, incapable of doing an honest day's work but are professional wrestlers...
Exercise 2: Obverses
PROBLEMS
1. Not all professionals are college athletes.
2. Metals are not organic compounds...
3. Not all clergy are abstainers.
4. Conformists are not geniuses.
5. Objects that do not pass the weight of fifteen pounds are suitable for boat anchors
EXERCISE C
1. Pessimistic people are journalists – Not equivalent to given propositions.
2. Not all officers are soldiers.
3. All no degenerates are scholars.
4. Things weighing less than fifty pounds are usually made of objects less than four feet.
5. Not all nonresidents are noncitizens...
EXERCISE D contraposition
1. Some nonpacifists are not nonsocialists – this is true as all are determinants.
2. No socialists are nonpacifists- this is not known to be true as the nonsocialists are undermined.
3. All nonsocialists are nonpacifists- this is not true, the nonsocialists are the undermined
4. No nonpacifists are socialists- not true as the undermined are the nonsocialists.
5. No nonsocialists are nonpacifists- this can be known to be false
6. All nonpacifists are nonsocialists- this can be known to be false
7. N

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