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Mathematics & Economics
Statistics Project
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Exploring Reliability and Validity Economics Statistics Project (Statistics Project Sample)


Students will analyze the psychometrics provided from the Values and Motives Questionnaire (VMQ), addressing 1) the type of reliability and validity used; 2) the areas of concern/strength for the Cronbach alpha coefficients; 3) how sample size and nature of the population may influence the constructs that the test attempts to measure (including validty and norming population); and 4) present an opinion of the test using the information in this report.
• Length of assignment: 600-900 words (not including the title page and reference page)
• Format of assignment: APA for font (Times New Roman, 12 pt.), title page, margins, and section headings
• Number of citations: 2+ (must include the VMQ technical manual)
• Acceptable sources: scholarly articles/texts published within the last five years
1. Types of Reliability and Validity.
Explain the types of reliability and validity used. The authors of the VMQ explain general principles of norming, two types of reliability, and two types of validity on pages 14-15. But when they present the specific information about reliability in the first paragraph on page 17, they specifically state that they are using one type of reliability and where this data can be found. This is the reliability that you will describe. The same applies to validity; find the specific information provided by the authors on the VMQ.
2. Reliability: Cronbach Alpha Coefficients.
Look at each of the constructs (scales) the test purports to measure and identify the proper category of low, acceptable, and high ranges of the Chronbach’s alpha coefficients for each scale. Use the chart provided in the “What Makes a Good Test” handout, which explains how to read reliability and validity coefficients. Match them to what is in the manual. Report the reliability category for all scales. Look at the number/percent of the scales with problematic versus acceptable internal consistency alpha values.
3. Sample Size and Nature of the Population.
a. Validity: Look at the population used for the VMQ and the populations for the tests used to evaluate the VMQ’s validity. Do you believe that the populations of the other tests are comparable to the population used in the VMQ? Does this raise an issue with the validity?
b. VMQ Norming Population: Is it representative of the population you want to use it for? How about gender and cultural representation? Is there demographic information and is it sufficient to draw conclusions? Do you believe that the results of the group taking the VMQ are broad enough to generalize to other populations? Did they sample enough people to believe that this sample captures the traits of the population? The answers to these questions will help you to evaluate potential issues with both validity and generalizability.
4. Your Opinion of the VMQ.
Summarize the psychometric properties you reported. Look at your evaluation of reliability, validity, and population. Based on your findings, do you believe that the VMQ’s authors sufficiently establish the reliability and validity of the VMQ? Note any concerns. Be sure to view this in terms of the sample size and the makeup of the populations used to norm the instruments. This adds important meaning to the reliability and validity coefficients.
To access and download the VMQ Technical Manual, click on the following link: Values and Motives Questionnaire: The Technical Manual.
Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the SafeAssign plagiarism tool.


Exploring Reliability and Validity
Sara Maidaa
Liberty University
Author Note
Sara Maidaa
I have no known conflict of interest to disclose.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to
Sara Maidaa
Exploring Reliability and Validity
Reliability refers to the consistency of scores in a test. It is the ability of an outcome to be replicated or repeated. On the other hand, validity refers to the extent which an instrument accurately measures what it is meant to measure (Cypress, 2017; "Values and Motives Inventory," n.d.). Scholarly researchers have been developing different instruments to use in measuring values accurately and understand them. An example of the instruments is the Values and Motives Questionnaire (VMQ). The paper undertakes an examination of the reliability and validity of the VMQ as an instrument in statistics.
Types of Reliability and Validity

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