4 pages/≈1100 words
Social Gerontology (Research Paper Sample)
Question: As a starting point, read the following news article, “PA Wellness Programme on track to meet target” 9 September 2011, available at http://www(dot)channelnewsasia(dot)com/stories/singaporelocalnews/view/1152050/1/.html Discuss the continuity theory in the context of an individual's ageing process in the physical, social and psychological dimensions. Give relevant examples to support your answer. (250-300 words) The activity theory perspective is said to be central to Singapore's national initiatives in promoting active ageing. Discuss the activity theory and its relation to three (80 marks) examples of such national policies and programmes. What are the drawbacks of having national policies and programmes driven by the activity theory perspective? Your analysis should take into consideration cultural, gender, social class and lifestyle factors. (800 words) In answering the first part of the question, you may also want to consider where continuity theory may or may not apply successfully. For the second question, you should understand the relationship between activity theory and the concept of active ageing as promoted nationally. You should review some of the national policies and programmes on active ageing (basic information can also be found on government websites and in news articles) and critically evaluate these approaches. Please note that the answers/reserach should centered around Singapore social/ cultural context, thus all references should come from Singapore websites, Singapore National policies Please remember to provide the word count, and a list of references at the end of the essay. You may visit below websites: 1) http://www(dot)mcys(dot)gov(dot)sg 2) http://c3a(dot)org(dot)sg 3) http://www(dot)moh(dot)gov(dot)sg 4) http://www(dot)cpf(dot)gov(dot)sg 5) http://www(dot)inpea(dot)net Journals/magazines: 1) Mehta, K. Journal of aging and social policy vol. 18 2) Singapore Straits Times Textbook (REQUIRED) 1) Social gerontology : A Multidisciplinary Perspective by : Hooyman, N.R & Kiyak, H.A , 2011 2) Understanding and Counselling older persons by: Koo, Helen, Mehta. Kalyani., Ko, Soo Meng , 2006 source..
Student Name Professor`s Name Social Gerontology 2 February 2012 Social Gerontology THE CONTINUITY THEORY It is a psychosocial theory of ageing which is based on the work of Atchley. The theory makes a basic assumption that though ageing is a changing process, those undergoing it react and respond to ageing based on their past life experiences. The decisions they made when they were a little younger and the day to day experiences they encountered strongly influence how they adapt when ageing knocks at their door. The theory also asserts that they are "predisposed and motivated towards inner psychological continuity as well as outward continuity of social behaviour and circumstances." This theory allows room for change. Their current and future decisions and behaviours are based on their past actions. This is because peoples` personality, values, beliefs and reasoning remain the same throughout life as a constant identifier of the inner self. (Hooyman & Kiyak 14) It has many applications with regard to social, physical and psychological aspects of life. A nurse taking care of the old in seniors` home will cope better if she understands the past of those she is entrusted with. She will give better services if he knows what decisions they made in the past as they are likely to follow the same path in coping with the normal ageing process. It can be applied across many cultural divides and is not limited to one country like Singapore. It also takes into account the external circumstances prevailing in the life of those ageing such as their habitat. The theory does not apply when it comes to diseases of old age. It makes a strong distinction between normal and pathological ageing, a distinction which makes it hard to apply in today`s life, for it has been established that the prevalence and the incidence of diseases increase with age. It is thus hard to isolate diseases from ageing. (Bruce et al. 511) THE ACTIVITY THEORY The basic idea behind this theory is that the activities that people partake in have a major role to play as far as life satisfaction is concerned. The roles people play and the things that people do help in defining themselves. As human beings grow old there is a tendency to leave professional jobs, membership of prestigious clubs and tasks which they used to value during their hay days. This in itself challenges their identity and the view they had of themselves. To cope they engage in activities that substitute the abandoned roles. This helps them to regain their inner self, and ultimately their whole self. (The Encyclopedia of the Aging & the Elderly 1) These activities may be faith based, pleasurable activities or volunteering with charitable organizations. Bearing in mind that Singapore is one of those countries where more than 7% of the population is elderly, the government found it necessary to put in place policies that acknowledge and help the elderly in adapting. Though some policies are based on this theory, their applicability is key to ensuring an active society. One such policy as highlighted in the IMC Report on the ageing policy is increasing work opportunities for the elderly. (Jaber et al. 34) The ...
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