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4 pages/≈1100 words
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APA
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Visual & Performing Arts
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Research Paper
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English (U.S.)
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Arts Music Paper: Hip Hop And Political Identity (Research Paper Sample)

Instructions:

I will provide you with my lecture notes and reading summaries which you can have a better idea to connect to the paper. You don't need it cite lecture notes and reading summaries in the paper but just for reference. Since the argument may deal with any aspect of the music or music scene but it must also connect in some way to the social issues and processes dealt with in this class (e.g. globalization, technology, appropriation, representation and politics of identity, etc.), so my lecture notes and summary readings can help you know some of such social issues we talked about in class that related to the interview of genre. In text citations and a work cited page will be required for this paper.

1/18/18 Lecture 2  Quiz on next Thursday
Tin Pan Alley● piano● Industrialization● Built upon the 19th century Jazz and Ragtime Styles● Themes or romance and or the good life,help people escape the pressures of daily life;Reinforced the links between pop. music & personal experience;the aspirations of an expanding/ethically mixed, but predominantly white culture.● They represent the apex of the sheet music industry in the United States and raised marketing and commercialism 
Modernization and Industrialization● Popular culture (and music) originates with mass production● Attitudes of classical versus Popular music
Creation of Tin Pan Alley● Philosophy - music as industry● Arrange pre-existing songs● Write music as well● All written for sale as sheet music
Charles Harris “After the Ball” Irving Berlin’s 9 Rules for writing a successful popular song1. The melody must musically be within the range of the average voice of the average public singer2. The title, which must be simple and easily remembered, must be placed effectively into the song3. The ideas and the wording must be appropriate for wither a male or a female singer...so that both sexes will want to sing it4. The song should contain “heart interest” even if it is a comic song5. The song must be original..success is not achieved by trying to imitate the general idea of the greatest song hit of the moment6. Your lyric must have to do with ideas, emotions, or objects known to everyone7. Your song must be perfectly simple8. The song writer must look upon his work as a business
Song quality● Emphasis on simplicity and universality● Marketed to middle class, men and women● Minimized verses● Emphasis on catchy chorus● Catchy song title
AdvertisingJewish and African American songwritersIrving Berlin, “Alexander’s Ragtime Band” (1911)
1/22 Section The difference between Tin Pan Alley and blues● Tin pan alley is more about commercialized while blues is about the way to talk about things that could not talk about, such of African American and racist…3 readings summaries
Paul Simon - obvious child● Start by people hit the colorful drum, not wear shirt● Great shot of location, related to African music● Language: English● About musical moves, capitalist and globalziation● transgender  
1/23/17 LectureThe vacant chair (1861) is written by george frederick roots (1820-1896)The battle-city of freedom (1862)Just before the battle, mother (1864)● Transportation was available (railway) so people buy sheet music for entertainment purpose (after dinner activity)
What’s the vacant chair is about? (lost of specific person)● Willie die, WW1, found in DC● Blues eyes and he was loved by his family● Generalized● Beloved by north and south during civil war● About celebrating thanksgiving dinner
This song is different from tin pan alley song is this become popular in marketable, serving different purposeTin pan alley is more generalized
Spirituals (david’s reading): a type of seared song created by and for african americans that original in oral tradition. Although it’s exact provenance is unknown, spirituals were identifiable as a genre by the early 19th century. After the civil war and into the 20th century choral, Solo and instrumental arrangements for private and concert performance emerged.
Wade in the water (what is this about)
Four layers of meaning:1. Biblical teaching (pedagogical)2. Show of piety3. Mirroring of slavery and african american life in song lyrics4. Literal directions or hidden messages
Ragtime: A style of popular music that flourished from the middle 1890s to 1918. Its main identifying trait is its ragged - ie. syncopated - rhythm. (Scott Joplin) While today it is most commonly thought of as a piano style, during the ragtime period the term also referred to other instrumental music, to vocal music and to dance
1) The best instrumental ragtime pieces manifested sophisticated musical thought and demanded considerable technical facility of performance for fullest realization.2) Ragtime songs, on the other hand, were generally less concerned with musical values, they were designed to reach a large and less discriminating audience.- Maple leaf rag by Scott Joplin
Minstrelsy: a type of popular entertainment, principally of the 19th century which consisted of the theatrical presentation of ostensible elements of black life in song, dance and speech; at first performed by whites impersonating blacks, minstrelsy only later was participated in by blacks- Jazz singer Al Jolson - mammy
1/25/18 Lecture 4The Blues!● Delta, classic, urban blues● identity the song and be able to distinguish them
Representation & difference between blues and ...● Blues is occurred as genre, subject performance, social political commentary● AA Represented themselves in blues while tin pan alley cannot do that● Sexuality for freedom while tin pan alley cannot do that
Historical context● Emancipation● Northern migration● Work after slavery
Fascination with the “other”Delta blues (1)Huddlie “leadbelly” Leadbetter, “Where did you sleep last night” (1944)
How does this different from Tin Pan Alley?
Delta blues tropica themes● Relationships● Sexuality● Work● transience
Musical features● Solo performance, mostly males● Guitar● Gendered (male)● AAB lyrics structure● 12 bar chord structure
Classic BluesBessie Smith, “I used to be your sweet mama” (1928)
Classic blues as the anti-mainstream● Deviates from white/mainstream subjects● Complicates notions of love/relationships such as domestic abuse, extramarital relationships● Female empowerment● Expression of female sexuality● Women portrayed as strong and independent
Urban bluesMuddy Waters, “Hoochie Coochie Man” (1954)● Historical context:○ Urban migration○ Venues: rent Parties and Clubs
Musical difference● More instrumentations (horns, use of slide guitar, harmonica, and piano)● Gendered (female)● amplification
1/30/18 LectureFolk (And protest)● Motion of authenticity● The connection between folk and un-commercialism● Folk music as protest
1930s and 40s - popularization of folk● Scholarly interest● Alan lomax● The seeger family● heritage/nationalism○ Finally authentic american identity
Searching for “authentic” Folk● 1. Authorless● 2. Aurally transmitted (vs. classic sheet music)● 3. Uncommodified○ Not produced for profit○ Produced for authentic● 4. It was “evaluated according to concepts of unchanging musical truth.”● 5. Implied a static concept of folk music○ unchanging● 6. The music was simple○ Classic music was complex
Greenwich Village, NYC● Co-opting folk by the middle class○ Woodie guthrie, “So long it’s been good to know you” (1935)■ About Dust bowl■ Agriculture & immigration crisis■ 吉他○ Pete Seeger● First time explicitly associated with politics protest○ Tie-up in left-wing politics & social movement
Politically motivated (represented by people, sing about class and work union)● Peace● Socialism● Protests about class and capitalism● Workers unions● Anti-racism
Changing notions of “authentically”● Difference○ Sung by middle class artists○ Writing original music○ Emphasized politics rather than american heritage● Similarities○ Anti-commercial■ Should not be written the music for profit○ Music of the people○ Orally learned
The 60’s Folk Revival - commodified for music industry● Reincorporate folk music● Very much political. The Kingston Trio, “Tom Dooley” (1958) From historical pointview○ More polished than Woodie guthrie, which emphasis on musicianship○ Telling story - re correct in a folk music & man is sentenced to die● Popular folk was highly politicalized, but not yet
Revival reginnings - non-political● Groups were clean cut/middle class● Often artists came from urban areas● Political messages removed● Based off of folk tunes/style● (as a result), commercially successful
Bob Dylan, “The lonesome death of hattie carroll” (1965)● 口琴,有鼓掌, politics of maryland● political● Injustice is necessary to show/ give background, highlight the injustice● Aligns with political & civil right movements
Negotiating Folk to also be popular (commercial)
60s - changing notions of “authentic” Folk● Political orientation/protest● Sincerity facto, but not coming from direct experience● Complex relationship with folk/fame● altered/cleaner sound (less gritty)● Added instrumentation (drums, bass)
2/1/18 Lecture
Tammy Wynette, “Stand By Your Man” (1968) vs. Blues brother clip, “ Stand By Your Man”女生 舒缓情歌 抒情 The difference between country and blue jazz but relevant in multiple levelsCountry(white conservative role genre) while blue jazz is implicitly make fun of the song in humorous ways
Origins of Country - Old Time or “Hillbilly” Music 乡村音乐● 3 forces that “whitewash” the tradition○ Hillbilly category is racialized as white by recording industry○ America’s fiddle tradition is being anglicized 英语话○ Appropriation of Banjo by whites○ African americans move away from minstrelsy, AAs also use fiddle
Bluegrass versus Country & western● Record labels constructed stereotype○ Uncle Dave Macon - “keep my skillet good & greasy”● The primary goal for these song are described how they are being white wash and expressed in white ways● Bluegrass: blues and jazz influence; still coded as white, heavy
Historical Backdrop● Stereotype began to expand when urban middle class in contact with migrating rural core 
Hank Williams, “Move it on Over” (1947) 欢快,乡村音乐,男音吉他 & “i’m so lonesome I could cry” (1949)- African American influence visible 
Development of Country style and ideology● Changing musical style (slide guitar, double stops on fiddle)● Content is highly personal● Sheds the hillbilly image● African american influence● Affiliated with the white working class
Outsider Perceptions of country by the (usually) Northern middle class● To middle class and northerners, country music represented a rural and backward past during a time in while modernity and progress were valued● Scholarly interest in folk music fades● Proponents of country music argues for its values as national heritage
The Louvin Brothers, “Satan is real” (1962) 祈祷 一直在说话 god is real 
50’s into the 60’s- the Nashville Sound● Smoother sound● Backing vocals● Striving arrangements● Polished singing● -> moving towards a “pop” aesthetic 
Complicating stereotype● rural -> attracting urban followers● Conservative -> performers often unable to live up to the content of their music● Poor -> audience is very often blue collar-middle class● White -> african american influence within and performance of country music
Ray Charles, “I can’t stop loving you” (1962) - the cover of country songI can’t stop loving you 这句话是合唱 然后是男声 if you make me through “ You take country music, you take black music..”
2/5 Section NotesMidterm paper● No transcription● Through what they say and generate into a strong thesis statement● 3 sources totals: 2 academic outside sources (peer review journal/book), 1 must from reader ● Feel free to use “I” in this paper● Each paragraph is tie to the thesis statement so you can go back and look at it and conclusion should be conclude and also strong● Name a title● Globalization theme: how music is spread widely and boardly
Example thesis: 1. Since they came from two different Jewish backgrounds, i got different viewpoint on what they consider to be traditional and authentic. They both considered Jewish and Israeli music at Hillel to be “authentic” when the songs establish a community environment, enhance the intended meanings of the prayers…..2. In this paper, I will be looking at how live or recorded music changes the dance space from the perspective of a musician, choreographer, and a dancer in the modern dance community at The University California of Santa Barbara. By using these three perspective, I will be looking at the musical relationships to movement, and how the dance space is affected by live music, and what these elements illustrate about the inner vision of each artists.
Reading summaries: 1. What it is about2. What methods does the author uses3. Why do we care, what’s the thesis 
Difference of the reading from Garofalo and Menand:1. One of them is from journal, the other one is not
2/6 lecture Rock n Roll
Themes of Rock n roll● Classical music usually valorized as cerebral, verse rock n roll was more for partying● Reflection of advantages of whiteness● Rock n roll heavily emphasized on masculinity and absent of female involved except they are the objects of music
1950’s postwar context● Upsides vs. downsides ● Demographic shift○ Urban to suburban areas● Sexuality and racism heavily present; structure of nuclear family
Pre-Rock n Roll -> Rhythm and blues● Primary characteristics of rhythm and blues○ Strong rhythm section○ Utilized the blues style ( not just the chord structure)○ Composed of jazz ensemble instrumentation
Muddy Waters - Got my mojo working黑人弹钢琴 全是黑人演奏 八字胡子
Chunk Berry, “Maybellene” (1955)● Rock n roll is innovated by AAs, they are being discovered by radio agents
Chunk Berry’s influence● Guitar becomes central instruments● Guitar technique is characterized by descending pentatonic double stops● Berry adp[ts vocal technique from R&B “shouters”
Rock n roll content● Influenced by rhythm and blues● Content moves away from pop’s emphasis on “universal” emotions● Adopted a more realist perspective -> grittier● Women presented as the object of desire● As a result, rock is a predominantly masculine genre
Emergence of Rockabilly as a subgenre of Rock n RollBill Haley and his comets, “ Rock around the clock” (1955) 一男一女跳舞● Imagery is very white, white social settings● It’s like sanilized AA style for white people
White Rockers into the mainstream● Elvis Presley, “ Ready Teddy” (1956) 长得像猫王的男人 帅!!!○ Draws from multiple style (gospel in church and country background)○ Embodied sexual dynamic, women were overcome “with desire”
Constructing the Elvis Persona● Made him into a “bad boy”● Sexualization of physical performance● Lower class, frp, “other side of the tracks”● Created into a pop culture icon (popularity extends past the music and into movies, tv, etc)● Embodiment of the American dream narrative● “Blue hawaii scene” - Elvis Persona
Analyzing the adult backlash against Rock n Roll● Reflects rift in values between youths and the generation of their parents● Discomfort with Rock’s connection to southern and african american roots● Challenges conservative notions of respectability● Negative association of Rock with the body -> “primitive” and inducing bad behavior
2/8 Lecture Teen Idols, Doo Woop, and Girls Group
Gender, relationship, nature of femininity and sexuality, racism…
The Death of "Rock n Roll"● Music desexualized● Cleaned up lyrics● Return to traditional white, middle-class values○ Little Richard Tutti Frutti 一男一女跳舞,钢琴的人唱歌,很多种乐器,欢快,表演者都是黑人,观众是白人○ Pat Bone 一个男的坐着唱歌,一个女的跳舞,白人,又来个女的
Compare these clips: "Pat Bone" - Social context is reconstructedRicky Nelson, “Young World” (1962)( 帅白人,you make my whole world, 他拿着吉他自谈自唱后面三个穿黑衣服伴唱,抒情慢歌)Move away from love/sex
Dick Clark and American Bandstand (一群人在跳舞)On Civil Rights:- Integrationist?- Includes African American artists- Excludes American American “extras”- Racial makeup: all white, everyone dress very nicely
Women in the 60’s - Doo Wop and girl groupsSmokey Robinson and Miracles, “shop Around” (1960) 四个男人很欢快的在唱歌● Basically all male genre, African American
Doo Wop● Performed by AA● Characterized by Gospel influences, quartet vocal harmonies, and scat● Marketed for teens● Denotes the flexibility and agency that men had to meet and discard women
The Shirelles, “Will you still love me tomorrow” (1961)(四个aa女的, 欢快) 
Negoating genderGirl groups● Follow Doo Woo groups in style● Attempted to “assimilate” into mainstream popular african culture● Offer a conservative 21

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Hip Hop and Political Identity
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Hip Hop and Political Identity
Growing in a house where there was a lot of content about civil rights and emancipation material from the 60s, clearly not everyone felt that the content was out of date. My grandfather had been a civil rights activist and as such would have a lot of material on the same lying around, whenever we went visiting his place on the holidays. For me they were not as interesting, but my older brother caught on the theme and the content. One of the ways that that society has expressed their feeling and concerns is through music. At the center of politics of identity is the need for the society to find a lasting solution for segregation along the racial lines, religious or otherwise. Social organizations form the basis of the politics of identity. Hip-hop is a genre of music that is quite common among the younger generation and one that bridges this gap. This is a genre that can be traced back to the days of civil rights movement establishment. This is a genre of music that is synonymous with the messages of civil rights themes. These are some of the elements that my brother mentioned in reference to why he favors the hip hop tunes over any other genre. According to him, most of the srtistes are able to address some of the most sensitive issues in the society while other genres shy away from controversy. To establish the reasons behind his choice in the music, I conducted a relatively short interview last weekend on 10th February 2018 at 2PM in the afternoon, at home. From the interview I was able to establish that my brother has a passion for hip hip music relative to the way most artistes enlighten the fans on various social issues. This would also explain why he is taking his is constantly involved in community programs. From the interview, I was able to establish that, there is a very strong connection between hip hop and sensitization on the social issues, governance challenges, foreign policies and questionable leadership at the local, national and international levels. From the interview I established that Hip hop is a music genre that sensitizing the people on the different sensitive social issues that most other genres shy off from relative to controversy.
The first part of the music that was established during the interview was with reference to what hip-hop music is. According to my brother, hip-hop music is a genre of music that was born of the civil rights movement back in the 60s, even though the music. Ideally, this is a music genre that is closely associated with artistes that are keen to educate the fans about the various social issues that are affecting their society without fear of intimidation. With some of the most acclaimed artists such as Tupac, the message against the discrimination was a key element. He was one of the artists that sensitized the youths especially of the African American origin to stand their ground and more importantly educate themselves (Hall, 2011). He believed in the freedom of the people and helped spread the message about the minority races embracing information and more importantly avoiding ignorance at all costs. He believed in a society that

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