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Biological & Biomedical Sciences
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The Process of Photosynthesis Research Assignment (Essay Sample)


double space ,12 point type and paraphrase. Essay , use cited paper and do not put surname on the page put page number on the paper.

The Process of Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis is a process through which organisms that are autotrophic extract ultra violate rays from the sunlight and use it to manufacture glucose and oxygen from water and carbon (IV) oxide. The glucose can then be converted to pyruvate. Through cellular respiration, pyruvate releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Sunlight energy is converted into chemical energy with the aid of a pigment called chlorophyll.
Chlorophyll being a complex molecule occurs in different modifications in the autotrophic organism. Autotrophs are organisms that through photosynthesis, they can generate their organic matter. Examples are protists, some bacteria and green plants. The opposite are heterotrophs who can only get their organic matter by feeding on other living organisms. All the organisms that are photosynthetic have got chlorophyll a. Red and violet-blue lights are well absorbed by chlorophyll. Green light is reflected. There are other pigments called accessory pigments that can absorb other energy, not absorbed by chlorophyll a. They are pigments found in the chloroplast. They include chlorophyll b, carotenes, and xanthophylls.
Chloroplasts are organelles in the cells of autotrophs where photosynthesis takes place. They are highly concentrated on the mesophyll part of a leaf. This part of the leaf is the location where photosynthesis primarily takes place. Structurally, leaves have stomata through which gaseous exchange takes place. They also have a hard outer layer called cuticle which conserves plant water. Leaf has got features that help it adapt effectively to the photosynthetic process. Phototropism helps the plant grow towards sunlight. Leaves have a mosaic arrangement. This plus the leaf area increases the surface area such that the leaves can trap light maximally. Leaves are thin. This facilitates movement of gasses in and out of the leaf. The midrib is large. It has phloem and xylem. Xylem facilitates the movement of water and mineral salts into the leaf while phloem facilitates the translocation of glucose in the plant. Leaves have a concentrated network of small veins. They increase the surface area for photosynthesis and also in the provision of support.
In the chloroplast, thylakoid is the photosynthesis basic structural unit. Thylakoids are flattened vesicles found both in the photosynthetic eukaryotes and prokaryotes. They contain chemicals for photosynthesis. Thylakoids are found in grana. Grana are interconnected by lamellae. Stroma is the fluid area found between the grana, and it is where the Calvin cycle occurs. Chloroplasts have got three compartments, unlike mitochondria which have two.
According to Whitmarsh, the process of photosynthesis starts when light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll a molecules. On gaining this energy, an electron becomes energized, and it moves to the primary electron acceptor molecule. By oxidation, chlorophyll becomes positively charged. This chlorophyll a photoactivation results into energy transfer into adenosine triphosphate and photolysis. The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate molecule is reduced in the process. The two chemical reactions involved here are the oxidation and condensation reactions. Oxidation is responsible for the transfer of el...
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