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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Asthma (Essay Sample)


Assignment: It’s time to begin writing a review of the literature for your article. By this time, you probably have an idea of the sub-topics (points) you wish to write about within your overall topic of choice. From your chosen articles and studies from module III (or new ones if you must), chooseseveralpeer-reviewedjournal articles on your topic and complete a Literature Review. In short, a literature review summarizes the articles AND it compares and contrasts the key topics of one article against another article (or two). To assure you have a range of articles, one of the articles you choose must be an actual research study and not just all review articles. All must be written within the last 5 years(exception is if still gold standard).
The paper should be at least five pages long(excluding cover and reference pages) but no more than eight. Keeping paper concepts succinct is key to writing and if papers exceed suggested length, point deductionswilloccur. Use your APA manual and produce a formal paper, as if for publication.

DO NOT owrite in 1st person owrite an abstracto simply write a summary of each article.
DO oput your references in APA style, ocite correctly within the body of your papero use at least 2 direct quotes(correctly) ocompare and contrast topics against the other article(s)
at least 1 table/ figure/ or algorithm


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Asthma
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Asthma
Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) are the most prevalent forms of pulmonary diseases, and the global burden associated with these conditions is increasing worldwide. Ehteshami-Afshar, Fitzgerald, Doyle-Waters, and Sadatsafavi (2016) reported that COPD and asthma are key causes of productivity loss and key drivers of medical costs, both directly and indirectly. Additionally, the study established that chronic respiratory diseases form a major class of the non-communicable diseases, which are the highest cause of morbidity and mortality in the modern world (Ehteshami-Afshar et al., 2016). In support of the insights presented in the study, Labonte, et al., (2016) reported that most cases of COPD remain undiagnosed due to being less symptomatic. However, their health services needs add to the cost of diagnosed cases considerably. The literature review entails a deep analysis of several aspects of pulmonary diseases, with more attention paid to COPD and asthma. The review is divided into several categories based on the insights obtained from the peer-reviewed articles.
Pathogenesis of Pulmonary Diseases
Biegelman and Bacharier (2016) conducted a study focused on identifying the relationship between asthma and respiratory infections occurring during the early stages of life. COPD consists of two main conditions; emphysema and chronic bronchitis. It can also present as a combination of both. Chronic bronchitis occurs following inflammation and increased mucus production within the airways. The additional mucus or swelling causes reduction of the lumen of the airways, making breathing difficult. On the other hand, emphysema occurs as a result of damage to the alveoli. Once damaged, the alveoli lose their elasticity, and the lungs are unable to expel all the air (Biegelman & Bacharier, 2016).
Asthma may occur as a result of several pathophysiologic factors, such as bronchial inflammation. The inflammation leads to constriction and resistance within the airways. Increased mucus production also leads to blockage of the airways. Evidence pointing at a possible relationship between a history of life viral infections and the development of asthma has been building up over the years. Biegelman and Bacharier (2016) conclude that early life infections play a crucial role in asthma development in later stages of life. Viruses such as human rhinovirus and syncytial virus have been identified as some of the major antecedents of childhood asthma. Interactions between the particular virus, environmental, and genetic factors cause the disease.
Causes of Pulmonary Diseases
Scholars agree on the findings that pulmonary diseases are caused by a combination of environmental, genetic, and behavioral factors (Guan, Zheng, Chung, & Zhing, 2016; Concroft, 2018). Prolonged exposure to irritants that damage the airways and the lungs leads to COPD. Cigarette smoke is the leading cause of COPD, especially in developed countries. Inhalation of other types of pollutants such as chemicals, cooking fumes, and smoke are the leading causes of COPD in the developing world. However, air pollution is still a huge concern in several developed countries. For instance, studies have linked higher levels of air pollution in China to chronic respiratory diseases (Guan et al., 2016). According to the authors, China has higher emissions of air pollutants than other countries globally. To determine the impact of air pollution on the prevalence of respiratory diseases in the country, the authors analyzed the components of the air pollutants. The chemical components of the pollutants pose a great health threat to the Chinese population, and air pollution is viewed ...

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