6 pages/≈1650 words
Youth Criminal Justice Act (Essay Sample)
The instruction is pretty simple; I'm supposed to write a summative essay for the teacher The topic is " Youth Criminal Justice Act" of canada. This is an argumentative essay. There is 4 different stages to complete before the actual essay, which i have been completed 3 of them. So Stage 1- Prepare Activity Topic Selection sheet Background Reading related to the topic Developing keywords and questions to focus research Stage 2- Accessing Resources Proposal Resource tracking sheet choose a collect the most suitable resource for research- Stage 3- Processing Resources - Annotated Bibliography and preparing an APA references page - How to... -Note-Taking: Using the split-page or note card method to take notes record information from chosen resources using one of the above methods ( note taking) - Annotated bibliography - Essay Outline with thesis Statement This process has been done already. What is left is STAGE 4- Transferring Learning - Complete first draft of essay with annotated bibliography so footnotes - Participate in peer editing session - Complete final draft of essay with annotated bibliography So What needs to be done is that I will send my Proposal and the essay outline with thesis statement and the sources which i got information from. Then due to the same Outline. i want the essay to be written in a Level 4 (80-100%) structure I want the essay to be Clear, Understandable , explains analysis evidence with through insight. I want you to show researches on statistics which was been done already by me. Everything in LEVEL 4. You can submit the final essay to me, i can take it to peer editing by wednesday. If anything is wrong with it. i will send back the file to you so you can edit it for me. Thanks a lot These are the files The essay proposal - In this essay I will be addressing how the Youth Criminal Justice Act is too lenient on young offenders between the ages of 12 to 17, proven by statistics. By being too lenient on convictions, sentencing and bail, it makes the majority young offenders to believe that it is ok to commit another violent act when they are released from an institution for punishment. The Youth Criminal Justice Act is apart of the Federal government and watch's over youth between the ages of 12 to 17. If a youth commits a violent act that violates the law, they will be punished depending on the severity of the offense and the circumstances that accompany it. The purpose of the YCJA is to prevent crime among the youth community and set out punishments once Actus Rea and Mens Rea is committed and the offender is at fault. Some major issues among the YCJA is bail being granted to easily to previous offenders who have broken the Criminal Code allowing them to think that it is ok to commit another offense since they have received freedom easily. Youth thinking psychologically that if they commit an illegal offense that there sentencing will be lighter then it would be if they committed a guilty act when they were 18 years of age. A lot of these short sentences result in the recommitment of a violent offense, harming society during the process of reintegrating to a community. In order to prevent this, the YCJA has to be less lenient when releasing sentences or bails to young offenders. I chose this topic to write for my argumentative essay because from a member of society, I constantly am seeing younger members of society committing violent and illegal acts that they do not care about because they think that they are either not going to get caught or they will not have to face a severe punishment. This is very disturbing to view everyday and I would like to further analyze this topic looking at specific aspects and flaws that are in the Youth Criminal Justice Act. This is harming society and as citizens of Canada we need to solve this problem and make the YCJA stricter causing youth to having to face more serious punishments with more counseling. I am planning to look at cases and statistics gathered by Ontario that deal with youths committing violent crimes. I believe that these sources will benefit my work on my essay because statistics speak a lot for themselves and by analyzing and interpreting cases into my own opinion I will have a chance to look at aspects of why youth re-commit offenses and how the YCJA is so lenient on youth. One aspect of research for this essay that I am having difficulty with is gathering evidence to support my statement that is efficient. In order to get through this aspect I will continue researching this topic, always allowing new statistics and cases to enter this argumentative essay. I will gather proper reasoning behind my stance in order to get my point across efficiently and understanding. Annotated Bibliography - The Annotated Bibliography Sources: 1) Lexum: Youth Criminal Justice Act Justice Laws Web Site. 2012 Canada. Canada. Lexum. CanLII. Federation of Law Societies Of Canada, Nov.-Dec. 2007. Web. 15 Feb. 2012. <http://canlii(dot)ca/en/ca/laws/stat/sc-2002-c-1/32863/sc-2002-c-1.html>. I) Lexum Sponsors CanLII and they get the information from (FLSC) a credible source. Therefore Source includes The Federation of Law Societies of Canada which they have profession into this field. Every lawyer in Canada and notary in Quebec are required by law to be a member of a law society and to be governed by its rules. Canada's 14 provincial and territorial law societies govern over 100,000 lawyers and 3,500 Quebec notaries in the public interest. The Federation of Law Societies of Canada is their national coordinating body. II) This source covers the following information on law development, which I will put introduction to make it clear. The source shows how the law on Youth Criminal Justice Act supplies the Criminal Code. By having 9 different parts with 200 Criminal Codes. It shows how the process goes and how to prove the guilty young offender. III) The Source is not Bias because there is only one law over Youth Criminal Justice Act, SC 2002, C 1. There have been 4 Different versions From April 1, 2003 until the current Jun 30, 2005 but CanLii Published Them on 2007 2) Snyder, Timothy: Youth Criminal Justice Act The Canadian Encyclopedia. 2010 Canada. “Snyder, Timothy D. "Youth Criminal Justice Act." The Canadian Encyclopedia YCJA. The Canadian Encyclopedia, 3 Jan. 2010. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <http://www(dot)thecanadianencyclopedia(dot)com/articles/youth-criminal-justice-act>. I) Youth Criminal Act a reliable source to use, since Professor Snyder is well known in his field history and law. He has been the author of 5 books: A Biography of Kazimierz Kelles-Krauz, The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569-1999, Sketches from a Secret War: A Polish Artist's Mission to Liberate Soviet Ukraine. The Red Prince: The Secret Lives of A Habsburg Archduke and Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin. He is the co-editor of two further books, and helped Tony Judt to compose a history of the life of the mind in the twentieth century. He has written for The Canadian Encyclopedia For YCJA and other periodicals II) This source covers the following information on law development, which I will put introduction to make it clear. The source demonstrates the fact why do Young Criminals attend to do such an act like murdering. Does it relate to the Genes/DNA from the parents or the way that they were raised? I will be using this for the reasons of my argumentative essay to prove why they should go to juvenile III) This source is bias, as you can see websites is related to other websites. There are pretty much different sources that support or sponsor, Just like snappmxsol Or the Canadian Government website. 3) John Howard: Youth Criminal Justice Act John Howard Society. 2007 was made in Alberta Canada. Howard, John. "Youth Criminal Justice Act Handbook." Criminal Justice Education (2007): 0-61. John Howard Society (YCJA). John Howard AB, May-June 2007. Web. 14 Feb. 2012. <http://www(dot)johnhoward(dot)ab(dot)ca/pub/youthcrim/youth.pdf>. I) Youth Criminal Justice Act Handbook is trustworthy because of John Howard has thought Law in many different High schools, and different teenagers. John Howard opened up an academy in Alberta and hired professional teachers to tutor students. He was successful in his career until now. II) This source covers the following information on law development, which I will put introduction to make it clear. This source demonstrates the different types of Crimes of Youth Criminal Justice System. The Type of stuff Young adults involve in to. What ages does YCJA holds on. I will be using The Flowchart 1 in order to get the right information how the process of Youth Criminal Justice works. III) The Source is not bias, since there are no sponsors except John Howard's own personal Information out of this. The website includes couple other PDF Booklets which were written by John. 4) CBC: Youth Criminal Justice Act CBC News P. 2006 T Canada. "CBC News Indepth: Crime: Youth Criminal Justice Act." Youth Criminal Justice Act: Changing the Law on Young Criminals. CBC News Online, 23 June 2006. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <http://www(dot)cbc(dot)ca/news/background/crime/ycja.html>. I) CBC Youth Criminal Justice Act is a reliable source, as CBC News is well known in the industry and the government. The website does not include any wrong information because the society and people are involved reading the news everyday. CBC is been out there for long time along Canadians and all it citizens. II) This source covers the following information on law development, which I will put introduction to make it clear. In my essay I will talk about the Youth that were not charged with specific offences. There has been several debates by changing the law on YCJA that “ Not as a criminal, but as a misdirected and misguided child” they have the right to learn the right path. III) This source is not bias, because there are no other Canadian law websites that support it. However CBC News always has other sources to support it's writings. I would always look for the important facts on the website and see if the Canadian national news is responsible for their citizens or people. 5) RCMP: Youth Criminal Justice Act DEAL Organization. Canada. "The Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA | Deal.org." DEAL.ORG. RCMP - Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <http://deal(dot)org/the-knowzone/health-and-safety/the-youth-criminal-justice-act-ycja/>. I) Royal Canadian Mounted Police has been working lots on the idea of YCJA. They have been working on from past year working on the National Youth Services branch of the RCMPS Crime prevention services. Deal.org Should be trustworthy due to the fact Royal Canadian Mounted Police is working on it. II) This source covers the following information on law development, which I will put introduction to make it clear. There are different Goals for the YCJA, To make the youth more accountable and responsible for their future. Make distinction between violent and non-violent crimes. Make every effort possible to prevent youth crime and help young people. I will be talking about how it affects young people and how it's been changed from certain aspects of the legal process for youth. III) This source is a bias, Therefore the website Deal.org has sponsors such as Canada's government website and also the RCMP is supporting it. For variety of reasons It would be easy to deal with this website for instance having the right and easy way of clicking on different links and getting the right information. 6) Department of Justice: Youth Criminal Justice Act Government Of Canada. 2011 Canada. "Youth Justice: The Youth Criminal Justice Act: Summary and Background." Department of Justice. Government of Canada, Summer 2011. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <http://www(dot)justice(dot)gc(dot)ca/eng/pi/yj-jj/ycja-lsjpa/back-hist.html>. I) Justice Government of Canada would be the best trustworthy source. Therefore Canada's government has been working on the information from February 4th 2003 until now and they have been upgrading their stuff each month. There is not doubt that Government of Canada would bring in any wrong information to its people and their citizens. II) This source covers the following information on law development, which I will put introduction to make it clear. Canadians Government has been passed the Bill C-7, the Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA). The new law replaces the Young Offenders Act (YOA), and is in force as of April 1, 2003, following a period of preparation for its implementation. This would help through my essay and let me introduce the bill and legislative II) This source is absolutely not bias therefore the source includes the right information and material for the Canadians Youth Criminal Justice Act. This helps me guide through the right work. WORK CITED: THIS IS THE ESSAY OUTLINE : Work Cited Canada. Lexum. CanLII. Federation of Law Societies Of Canada, Nov.-Dec. 2007. Web. 15 Feb. 2012. <http://canlii(dot)ca/en/ca/laws/stat/sc-2002-c-1/32863/sc-2002-c-1.html> --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Snyder, Timothy D. "Youth Criminal Justice Act." The Canadian Encyclopedia YCJA. The Canadian Encyclopedia, 3 Jan. 2010. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <http://www(dot)thecanadianencyclopedia(dot)com/articles/youth-criminal-justice-act>. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Howard, John. "Youth Criminal Justice Act Handbook." Criminal Justice Education (2007): 0-61. John Howard Society (YCJA). John Howard AB, May-June 2007. Web. 14 Feb. 2012. <http://www(dot)johnhoward(dot)ab(dot)ca/pub/youthcrim/youth.pdf ------------------------------------------------------------------------ "CBC News Indepth: Crime: Youth Criminal Justice Act." Youth Criminal Justice Act: Changing the Law on Young Criminals. CBC News Online, 23 June 2006. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <http://www(dot)cbc(dot)ca/news/background/crime/ycja.html ------------------------------------------------------------------------ “Youth Justice: The Youth Criminal Justice Act: Summary and Background." Department of Justice. Government of Canada, Summer 2011. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <http://www(dot)justice(dot)gc(dot)ca/eng/pi/yj-jj/ycja-lsjpa/back-hist.html>. -------------------------------------------------------------------------- "The Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA | Deal.org." DEAL.ORG. RCMP - Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <http://deal(dot)org/the-knowzone/health-and-safety/the-youth-criminal-justice-act-ycja/>.. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Brodbeck, Tom. "Re-offending Rates Are Staggering." Winnipeg Sun. SUN, 02 Mar. 2010. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. <http://www(dot)winnipegsun(dot)com/news/columnists/tom_brodbeck/2010/03/02/13089631.html>. Leniency behind growth of youth crime INTRODUCTION In 1908 there was an act called Juvenile Criminal Act, for young offenders. They were treated much like adults – They were held with adults while waiting for their trial to come and received the same sentences as adults. It is pretty important to know the history of YCJA and what act it was called in the past. However there are many other consequences towards the Juvenile Criminal Act. Young Offenders did not have the right to be held in different place then adult criminals. The Young Criminal Justice Act was proclaimed in force on 1 April 2003, and was introduced and replaced as Young Offenders. This Applies to young person, or youth, who appear to be 12 years old and older, but who is less then 18 years old. This act will catch youth criminals, which have been, committed an offence. This does not fall under the jurisdiction of the criminal justice system well known as the criminal code. The Youth Justice Act subjects the Contraventions Act and the National Defense Act and has special jurisdiction to deal with offences committed by young offenders. This is useful information for my introduction in order to get the background of YCJA and how it is introduced to people. I will be using this information as an introduction of my essay, and to get audience know when this act was introduced to Canadian Government and for the society. Public Opinion, Media reports and the history of people's cases those are extensive of negative attitude towards the Young Offenders Act and youth courts. Generally, The public believes that youth court judges are too lenient on young criminals. That youth criminals are increasing more and more and longer increase sentences are necessary. I will be addressing the matter of how youth court judges are too lenient on young criminals. This source can help me give real life examples of how young criminals intend to do more crimes since they know the government does not put them into a harsh situation. BODY #1 The fact each year according to the statistics the youth crime rate is increasing more and more. Judges are dealing with youth cases, which are the same as those adult cases due to the severity of crimes that are being committed among the youth population. This information that I will be addressing is based on the Canadian government website. Judges are concerned that most youths keep on recommitting crimes because of taking advantage of the system. They know that the law is pretty lenient on them so they keep committing crimes. The national data collectors state, “among young people, the use of guns in violent crime is increasing” as, noted it has gone up by a third. It is 50% more common for the youth offenders to be armed with a gun when committing a violent offence compared to an adult offender. This is also noted by Stats Canada as murders from youths between the ages of 12 to 17 are increasing. Indeed, “the rate of the youth aged 12 to 17 accused of homicide was at its highest point since 1961”. Given the statistics this information is stating how it's 50% more common for youths to be armed with a gun, compared to adults. This shows how guns are easier to access in our society today compared to before. This proves how we need to increase the punishment for youths cause the YCJA is too lenient. Now that the accessibility for weapons is easier to access the government needs to increase the severity of punishments. Body #2 In Manitoba, during the time frame of April to June 2006, 100% of the youth that were released from custody within the next two years were charged for committing another offence. In other words every young offender that committed an offence between April 1 and June 30 has been accused and charged with another offence within the next two years. If 100% of young offenders were charged again within the following two years of there offence then there is an issue that is presented with these statistics. Clearly the punishment was not severe enough to make the young offenders learn their lesson the first time they committed an offense. Among the population of the young offenders in society a minority of the proportion are known to reoffend. These reoffenders participate in violent offences against both property and people, generating an increase in public anxiety, as indicated by survey research. This evidence I will be using in support of my body #2 paragraph as proof that youths are reoffending against both people and property, which is very dangerous in the eyes of the public. In response to this there is an increase in the anxiety of the public due to fear. It is not only holding an impact on the offender but the public. In order to eliminate the high rates of public anxiety, youth re-offending needs to be stopped. This issue is a part of our society and the rate of recidivism has increased by 75% over the last quarter of 2007 which is proven to be the highest in at least 5 years as proven by data, This is evidence that the issue is getting worse in our society, not better. This evidence shows that over the past 5 years re-offending rates have increased among the youth and are currently the highest as ever. This is very dangerous and needs to be resolved. This is showing that youth's punishment is not as severe as it used to be making them more likely to re-commit a criminal offence that violates the YCJA. Body #3 Ditto a Stats Canada survey released last July that showed crime overall in Canada -- non-violent, as well as violent -- had fallen almost a third since 1990; except for youth crime. Crimes by young offenders have been on the rise since the early part of this decade. None of this should come as a shock, however, since the same July 2007 Stats Canada report that showed youth crime bucking the national crime trend also contained this gem: "Even though more youth came into contact with the police in 2006, fewer were charged with crime”. This will stand behind me through my essay by showing how the YCJA is too lenient towards youth conviction; therefore we need to take into consideration the offences and be stricter when releasing parole and bail. Youth are being let off too easily and fewer are being charged with crimes and being given warnings instead which is making their mind not realize how serious an offense it. The youth who re-offend do not know how severe it is to break the law nor do they understand how threatening they are to the people around them. Conclusion This has led to an astonishing reduction in the number of young offenders who are incarcerated, even from the low levels under the old YOA. Again according to Stats Canada, the number of 12- to 17-year-olds in detention or on probation has fallen by well over a third since the YCJA came into effect in Apr. 2003.Young people aren't stupid. And if they are gang members, their gang leaders aren't stupid either. They see that for most of the crimes they do, the worst that happens to them is that they must accompany a social worker to their victim's house and apologize and make some insignificant restitution. Big deal. It used to be said our justice system had become so lenient and porous that most young offenders were back on the street before you knew it. Now, most of them are never off the street. It's no wonder Toronto police reported this year that while 12- to 17-year-olds make up a small percentage of their city's population, they are responsible for 47 per cent of the robberies there and 20 per cent of the break-and-enters. Each year nearly 200,000 young offenders are accused of crimes (although an increasing number are never charged.) This will be useful to gather up the information for my conclusion. In order to finish my argumentative essay, I would be taking both sides. For instance YCJA has been trying their best to prove decrease on their crimes by giving detentions to youth criminals, and in another way they are too lenient in their sentence at the end. In addition to increasing the punishments of young offenders the YCJA has to keep in mind to ensure that the offenders are seeking the rehabilitation, guidance, support and appropriate treatment needed to guide them in the right direction. To ensure that the young offenders do not re-offend the proper action has to be taken both during their detention and after during the reintegration into their community. Not providing appropriate treatment and support from individuals to the young offender can cause them more likely to re-offend and causing harm to the public. By having less detention on the youth, then there will be more chance for young criminals to re-offend their crime. So it could be pretty harmful for the society. For instance, a teenage committing a crime such as robbery would get him charges, but YCJA would keep his/her history clean. That's why they would want to re-commit the act. This should be changed for sure in the future. YCJA detentions would be useful to get rid youth criminals guilty mindset. I will go ahead and attach these files as Microsoft Word Document. IF anything please let me know. Thanks source..
Youth Criminal Justice Act of Canada Name Institution name: Since 4th of February 2002, the Young Criminal Justice Act has been in existence despite the rising crime rates among youths in Canada. Section 2 of the Act states that the act applies to young criminals aged between 12 and 17 years old, with a purpose of correcting the offenders through rehabilitation (YCJA 2001, c.1). The ground statistics and research findings showing the hiking youth crimes bears a point of concern in the effectiveness of the Act (Thomas 2007). Judges in Canada are dealing with youth cases, which are the same as those adult cases due to the severity of youth crimes. It is a concern to the judges that most youths are taking advantage of the lenient system to keep on recommitting crimes. This essay sought to argue on the allegations of leniency of the act as the cause of the increased rates of youth crimes in Canada. If the purpose of YCJA is to address the offenses underlying young persons, then it must face criticism in failure to do so. Therefore, this writing predicted that leniency of Youth Criminal Justice Act is the cause of youth crime increase in Canada. In 1908, the Canadian government endorsed and implemented law regarding youth crime which became the Juvenile Delinquents Act (JDA). Juvenile Delinquents Act came into being following the philosophical changes that were facing the juvenile delinquency. Formally, children who committed crime faced the same harsh treatment as those of the adults, despite their minor crimes. In fact, the 1892 Canada Criminal code detained children together with the adults. In 1984 a new approach to youth crime came into existence with the name, the Young Offenders Act (YOA), replacing the Juvenile Delinquents Act. YOA applied until 2003 when the Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA) rose. The Young Criminal Justice Act purposes to prevent youth crimes by addressing the ...
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