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The Patient with an Infectious Communicable Disease Paper (Essay Sample)


M6A4: Breaking the Chain: The Patient with an Infectious Communicable Disease Paper
The registered professional nurse plays an important role in infection control and prevention. The purpose of this written assignment is for you to apply your findings from evidence-based practice (professional nursing references) to a patient with an infectious and communicable disease.
Using APA format, write a six (6) to ten (10) page paper (excludes cover and reference page) that addresses the topic. A minimum of three (3) current professional references must be provided. Current references include professional publications or valid and current websites dated within five (5) years. Additionally, a textbook that is no more than one (1) edition old may be used.
The paper consists of two (2) parts and must be submitted by the close of week six (6). Each part must be a minimum of three (3) pages in length.
Choose one (1) of the following diseases:
Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS)
Hepatitis A
Hepatitis B
Hepatitis C
Part 1 – The Chain of Infection (minimum of three (3) pages)
Describe each of the six (6) elements in the chain of infection in terms of the disease you chose for this paper (infectious agent, reservoir, portal of exit, means of transmission, portal of entry, susceptible host). Provide supporting evidence, epidemiologic statistics, and pertinent laboratory data where appropriate.
Part 2 – Nursing Management (minimum of three (3) pages)
Identify treatment options utilized to break the chain of infection and prevent contagion for the disease you chose for this paper. Explore evidence-based practice nursing interventions when managing short-term and long-term consequences for the patient with the disease you chose for this paper. Consider and describe how the registered professional nurse would support patient adherence to these treatment options.
Compose your work using a word processor (or other software as appropriate) and save it frequently to your computer. Use a 12 font size, double space your work and use APA format for citations, references, and overall format. Be sure to check your work and correct any spelling or grammatical errors before you submit your assignment
P.S. Please include this book as a reference: Smeltzer, S., Bare, B., et al. 12ed.


Breaking the chain: the patients with tuberculosis
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Part one: the chain of infection
Communicable diseases are diseases which can be transmitted and cause illness to people. Infective agents are pathogens that cause disease. Monteiro, Carvalho and Duarte (2012) explain that the infective agents can invade human body or can release toxins that cause damages to the body cells including their functions. In cases of severe conditions, communicable diseases may lead to death. A good example of a communicable disease is tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the bacterium that causes tuberculosis. Though, TB is considered as a lung disease, it can affect other body parts such as the brain, kidney and the spine. If TB is left untreated, then it can be fatal. The disease is spread through air droplets when an infected individual talks, sneezes, or coughs. TB was once regarded eradicated, although it is making a comeback with more and stronger antibiotic-resistant strains.
The data of the World Health Organization reveals that one-third of the world’s population is infected with tuberculosis bacterium. Most cases of tuberculosis in the world happen in Southeast Asia and Africa. Each untreated person with tuberculosis can infect about 10 to 15 people every year. Treating tuberculosis is not easy. An infected person with tuberculosis is normally required to take antibiotics like Rifampin including other drugs for at least six months for each day without failure (Monteiro, Carvalho and Duarte, 2012). Any failure can lead to resistance of the disease; therefore patients are highly advised to take medication and treatment seriously. Tuberculosis is not a joke; serious treatment and commitment to take medication is highly needed. In healthcare centers, the patient is placed on restricted conditions (normally on droplet precautions) and anybody else who enters the room must put on an approved tuberculosis mask. It is important to take entire course of antibiotics in order to prevent new, stronger drug-resistant tuberculosis to emerge.
There are six crucial factors contributing the spread of communicable diseases including the etiologic agent, reservoir, portal of exit, mode of transmission, portal of entry and susceptible host (Ozcaglar, 2012). These factors form what is termed as chain of infection. The chain of infection for tuberculosis has six links.
Etiologic agent
The etiologic agent refers to any microorganism (such as parasite, fungi, viruses, and bacteria) that causes an infection or communicable diseases (Ozcaglar et al, 2012). Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the etiologic agent that causes TB. The stronger ability of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis to grow, cause disease, and invade tissue, the greater the ability of the bacterium causing an infection.
The reservoir of infection can be objects like doorknobs and countertops, or animal or human. The reservoir provides a place for the microorganism to reproduce and strive. The environment, animals, and humans can be reservoirs for pathogens. In certain cases, a person may have a disease, though is not ill or symptomatic (Ozcaglar et al, 2012). Such kind of a person is a carrier and he or she may be considered as a ‘colonized’. Human being is the only reservoir for tuberculosis. The reservoir is the source of infection in which tuberculosis microbacterium can breed, parasitize and live. The source of infection includes infected humans and this form the basis for the bacterium to infect humans.
Portal of exit
The portal of exit refers to where the bacterium leaves the reservoir. The portal of exit of tuberculosis is through the nose and the mouth (Ozcaglar et al, 2012). When somebody infected with tuberculosis coughs or sneezes, they releases huge numb...
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