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Health, Medicine, Nursing
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Nursing Process: Approach to Care Diagnosis and Staging of Cancer (Essay Sample)


Write a paper (1,550-2,000 words) on cancer and approach to care based on the utilization of the nursing process. Include the following in your paper:
Describe the diagnosis and staging of cancer.
Describe at least three complications of cancer, the side effects of treatment, and methods to lessen physical and psychological effects.
Discuss what factors contribute to the yearly incidence and mortality rates of various cancers in Americans.
Explain how the American Cancer Society (ACS) might provide education and support. What ACS services would you recommend and why?
Explain how the nursing process is utilized to provide safe and effective care for cancer patients across the life span. Your explanation should include each of the five phases and demonstrate the delivery of holistic and patient-focused care.
Discuss how undergraduate education in liberal arts and science studies contributes to the foundation of nursing knowledge and prepares nurses to work with patients utilizing the nursing process. Consider mathematics, social and physical sciences, and science studies as an interdisciplinary research area.
You are required to cite to a minimum of four sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and relevant to nursing practice.


Nursing Process: Approach to Care
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation
Nursing Process: Approach to Care
Diagnosis and Staging of Cancer
Cancer is a major cause of deaths in the world and has a number of symptoms. Mostly, some of these symptoms are not necessarily as a result of cancer but can be as a result of other problems or growth of cells which are non-cancerous cells. It is always advisable for a person to seek medical advice if one has experienced symptoms that do not go away after some times. The doctor normally will conduct physical body examinations and also conduct several tests on the patient so as to determine the cause of the symptoms. After the doctor has determined the cause of the symptoms as a result of cancer, this is known as diagnosis (National Comprehensive Cancer Network, n.d.). The doctor may now move to the next step so as to determine the treatment to the cancer patient.
Once the doctor has determined a patient has cancer, the next step he or she carries on the patient include finding out at which rate the cancer is spreading to other parts of the body. The laboratory test may be conducted as well as imaging tests which enable the doctor to know the location of cancer and how it has affected the other parts of the body. Cancer staging is normally carried out twice where the first staging is carried out before treatment and it is referred to as clinical stage. The second staging is carried out after the treatment also known as pathologic staging which can be done through surgery. For the doctors to conduct staging normally they use TNM staging system, a system which is conserved by American Joint Committee on Cancer and Union for International Cancer Control and National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Where T score determines the spreading rate of the primary tumor which is the node shows the expanse of cancer inside the nearby lymph nodes. Finally, the M (mestasis) ascertains if cancer has spread to other parts.
Complications of Cancer, Side Effects of Treatment, and Methods to Lessen Physical and Psychological Effects
When the patients are diagnosed with cancer, they are likely to develop different complications either before treatment or even after treatment of cancer. Childhood cancer survivors are likely to experience long term complications such as dysarthria, language impairment, and bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (Yiu, Wong, Liu, Cheuk, Chiang, Ha, & Chan, 2018). Cancer treatment goes hand in hand with the side effects due to the procedures that are carried out in cancer patients during treatment. Procedures such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy on the neck and head and selected therapy can lead to harmful oral side effects. Some of the side effects associated with cancer treatment include oral mucositis and salivary gland dysfunction (Sroussi et al., 2017). Mucositis contributes to eating difficulties to the patients since it normally occurs along the gastrointestinal tract. Salivary gland dysfunction is a condition where a decrease in the flow of saliva occurs; it normally occurs in the first week of treatment of cancer patient through radiotherapy and intensifies through the treatment process.
Patients are likely to develop both psychological and physical effects when diagnosed with cancer. Psychological effects associated with cancer such as distress whereby the sometimes develop a negative attitude towards the disease and this affects his or her ability to cope with cancer. Clinicians can assist the patients overcome this emotional distress through providing various services, including providing counseling services, educating patient, and proving coping and psychological support, among others (Grassi, Spiegel, & Riba, 2017). Pain can be reduced through medication for instance pai...

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