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Education
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Educational and Psychological Assessment of Exceptional Students (Essay Sample)

Instructions:
1. What five steps should you follow in preparing to conduct systematic quantitative observations? Explain the three ways in which behavior can be sampled and which is the best way to do that? Mr. Fitzpatrick has used the results of a group-administered achievement test to make a placement decision concerning John. What facts about group-administered achievement tests has Mr. Fitzpatrick failed to attend to? Under what conditions could he use an achievement test designed to be administered to a group? Provide details and sources with your answer. 2. Explain the four ways in which behavior can be interpreted. (O Explain content specificity. Give an example of a see-write, see-say, hear-write, and hear-say formats. Provide details and sources with your answer. 3. Why is fluency an important dimension to assess in beginning skills? Name and describe three characteristics of effective testing programs. What are three resources that you can use for setting up a plan for managing data collection and analysis in a classroom? Provide details and sources with your answer. 4. What are five questions that you should ask in picking a test for careful review? What kinds of evidence should test authors provide to support the interpretations that they recommend for their test?Identify at least four important considerations in selecting a specific achievement test for use with the third graders in your local school system. Provide details and sources with your answer. 5. A new student is assessed in September using the WRAT-4. Her achievement test scores (using the PIAT-R-NU) forwarded from her previous school placed her in the ninetieth percentile overall. However, the latest assessment places her only in the seventy-seventh percentile. Give three possible explanations for this discrepancy. Ms. Epstein decides to assess the achievement of her fifth-grade pupils. She believes that they are unusually “slow” learners and estimates that, in general, they are functioning on about a third-grade level. She decides to use Primary Level Ill of the SAT. What difficulties will she face? Provide details and sources with your answer. source..
Content:

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Educational and Psychological Assessment of Exceptional Students
Question 1
Systematic observation is real life observation occurring in a natural environment and involves manipulation. There are five basic steps followed in systematic observation research. First is to select the aspect of behavior to be observed then followed by the definition of the specific behaviors which fall within the same aspect of behavior. Second is the training of observers for uniformity and standardization. The next is to quantify the observations using the standardized method and finally develop the procedures to facilitate the recording of the data (Bartram, 1995).
In probability sampling method, there is likelihood of everybody being selected, but the chance varies in every individual. Non-probability sampling method is where some individuals have no chance of selection. Using the non-probability method makes it impossible it to estimate how accurately the sample group represents the entire population. In choosing a sampling technique, it is important to consider the characteristics of behavior and social interactions that are relevant to the study population and the research questions. In most studies one will not have adequate empirical knowledge of the dependencies between relevant variables. Under these circumstances, the observer should avoid intrinsic biases to whatever extent possible. It will often be possible to use more than one sampling method in a study. Such samples can be taken successively or, under favorable conditions, even concurrently. The extent to which concurrent multiple sampling is feasible will depend very much on the behavior categories and rate of occurrence and the observational conditions. Where feasible, such multiple sampling can assist in the efficient use of research.
Achievement testing is very necessary in school programs. Published achievements have been widely used in many schools. There various published achievement tests for use which makes it easier to understand the strengths and weaknesses of tests. A standardized achievement test has features including items designed to evaluate the achievement domain directions for administering and scoring test, and norms based on representative groups of individuals such as the appropriate candidates. Achievement tests have been used to evaluate a child`s factual knowledge by testing what has been taught and administered regularly in school, hence, they are very important as they motivate students to study and review more often. Students work harder in learning their subjects when they know that they will be tested and feel proud when they pass. Those who do well in their tests are generally admired by their peers and are given recognition by their schools. As a result, this improves the students' level of self-esteem. Learning is a major goal of students at school. The only way to measure the students' level of learning is through graded achievement and tests. Therefore, it is every student's goal to achieve high scores in their tests.
In the case provided, Mr. Fitzer teaches John that hard work could make him achieve his goals. Getting good results through hard work helps students associate their personal efforts with rewards. Conversely, if they fail, it shows them that there is a consequence in taking things for granted. Anxiety is the most common negative effect of achievement tests. Failure can bring shame and embarrassment to the student, especially if parents and teachers have high expectations. Therefore, many students are afraid of failing their tests. Some even report physical symptoms such cold sweats, headaches and increased heart rates before their exams. Not all children learn at the same pace and in the same way, so as a result some students fail or receive a low sco...
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