The Relationship Between Urbanization And Industrialization
In simple terms, industrialization leads to urbanization. The how is discussed below. By definition, industrialization is the process through which there is a total transformation of a country’s economy. It is whereby manufacturing processes replace the simple traditional agricultural process. It is whereby the mass production which is mechanized replaces the individual manual labor, and the assembly lines take the place of craftsmanship. The characteristics of industrialization include labor division that is efficient, rapid economic growth and problem-solving through innovative technology means.
Urbanization, on the other hand, is characterized by the following aspects; 1) shift of population from the rural to the urban centers. 2) Gradual population increase in the urban areas due to the shift of the rural population. 3) The manner in which the society adapts to the change. 4) Transformation of cities and towns into larger ones. In simple terms, as people migrate from the rural to the towns to work or to do business, these towns grow and transform into larger ones.
The industrial revolution began in the late 18th century (Gollin & Jedwab et al., 2013). Ever since that time it has had a great impact on urbanization as mentioned earlier. The two intermarry perfectly to support each other. Industrialization is the force that drives urbanization. Likewise, urbanization provides room for industrialization. The two coexist mutually. The following are ways in which the two concepts relate.
Industrialization leads to the growth of the economy and creates employment opportunities which attract people from the rural. Going back to how urbanization is established it is found that it commences when a factory or series of factories are established in a place. The establishment of industries calls for labor or raises the demand for labor. To meet the demand for the workers or the product of the industry, other businesses such as service providers, retailers, and building manufacturers among others begin alongside the factory (Gollin & Jedwab et al., 2013). The result is the creation of more jobs and population increase which demands housing systems thus creating an urban center.
Getting back into the human civilization history, it is observed that near vast water bodies, urbanization has been the strongest. In the olden days, it was due to the provision of water and food, i.e., fishing things changed during the era of industrial revolution. Large industries establish near water bodies for the purposes of sustainability. The production of products requires large quantities of water. In addition to that, water is required for the transportation of the same products. The world today has more urban centers established in the coastal regions.
Urban centers are characterized mostly by the agencies of public work and education. The increase in industrialization leads to the increase in demand for the two. Businesses are after increasing productivity through the employment of technology. To achieve this, they require a workforce that is highly educated. This is provided by the urban centers. At the same time, skilled and educated workforce would want to live in conditions that are pleasant which are provided by the same urban centers.
As seen earlier, industrialization gives birth to urbanization and urbanization supports it. Urbanization leads to the growth of population in both the cities and towns. In social dimensions, it leads to the spread of urban life into the rural. The unprecedented moment that urbanization has is felt all over the world but more so in the third world countries. Predictions basing on the existing urbanization rates say that with a period of few decades, urbanization in the third world countries will double that of the presently developed countries (Shubham, 2015)
When the two concepts; i.e., industrialization and urbanization are coupled together, they become an inducing factor for rural-urban migration. The population of the cities with a bigger capacity overflow with the migrants from the rural. This increase of population catalyzes urbanization on the positive side. On the negative side, however, it leads to the pressure on the public utilities resulting to urban-related problems such as poverty, congestion, unemployment, slums and among others (Chen & Zhang et al., 2014).
Industrialization may take place once with improvements of the industries alongside. However, urbanization is a continuous process that takes very long time. Within this period, there are both reforms on the economic and the social phases. When some cities are compared, this concept can be well explained. For instance taking these three cities for comparison; Bangkok, Los Angeles, and Berlin. Bangkok is a less developed nation town. Los Angeles is an American City and Berlin a European city. It is noted that each of the city named above has got its level of economic, environmental and social prosperity. The three have been influenced by the social reform, increased education and government reforms (Chen & Zhang et al., 2014).
In a nutshell, urbanization and industrialization are mutually related. Industrialization leads to urbanization through the creation of jobs. Urbanization supports industrialization through the provision of the skilled and educated workforce and land among others.
- Chen, M., Zhang, H., Liu, W., & Zhang, W. (2014). The Global Pattern of Urbanization and Economic Growth: Evidence from the Last Three Decades. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4123908/
- Gollin, D., Jedwab, R. & Vollrath, D. (2013). Urbanization with and without Industrialization. Retrieved from http://www.uh.edu/econpapers/RePEc/hou/wpaper/2013-290-26.pdf
- Shubham (2015) Link between industrialization and urbanization in terms of development approach. Retrieved from https://planningtank.com/development-planning/link-between-industrialization-and-urbanization-in-terms-of-development-approach