Cannabis or marijuana has been known to have adverse effects on the individuals who use it for recreation purposes. Due to the intense danger that marijuana can have on its users, it has been outlawed by most countries. However, there are countries that accept and embrace the use of medical marijuana. Medical marijuana is cannabis and cannabinoids that are prescribed by physicians to their patients. Cannabis is a psychoactive drug that is obtained from the cannabis plant. Cannabinoids, on the other hand, refers to a chemical compound that is obtained from the cannabis plant. The chemical compound functions by altering the normal neurotransmitter release in the brain, and ultimately affecting the possible experience of pain. Accordingly, the paper explores the overall information regarding medical marijuana, the medical uses of medical marijuana and the pharmacology of medical marijuana.
In most countries across the world, the use of marijuana is outlawed as it is considered as a narcotic drug. However, there are some countries that have legalized marijuana. The medical marijuana is found in some of the countries where marijuana use has been accepted and even used for medical purposes in countries where it is illegal. Even in the countries where medical marijuana is used, there have still existed extensive tests and set levels of restrictions which the user cannot exceed due to its toxic nature. The short-term effects of marijuana include dizziness, fatigue, vomiting, and hallucination. Long-term effects of the drug, on the other hand, include memory loss, cognition problems, addiction and mental disorders characterized by abnormal social behaviors. Other than the fact that cannabis has been known to posse adverse effects to its users, the drug has also been recognized for its medical values in different cultures over a vast period. Among the top medicinal benefits of marijuana include the reduction of nausea and vomiting during the administration of chemotherapy, improving appetite in patients who have HIV/AIDS, and the reduction of chronic pains muscle spasms. There are different methods used in the process of the administration of medical marijuana. The means include the use of liquid tinctures, vaporizing or smoking dried buds, ingesting the good sections, using tablets, skin patches, and oral or skin sprays. There are places where synthesis cannabinoids are available as prescription drugs.
The Medical Uses of Marijuana
Some patients who undergo chemotherapy have been noted to be extensively nauseated and even vomit either during the exercise or after the exercise; medical marijuana has been discovered to be one of the main ways that can be used to manage the situation. Despite the effectiveness of the marijuana in managing the nastic felling and even the vomiting, it is rarely used because it also possesses side effects such as dizziness. The drug is also highly essential in handling HIV/AIDS patients. In most instances, the patients are known to lose appetite. The administration of medical marijuana to these individuals is however helpful as it acts as a fast and efficient way of boosting their appetite. The most common use of medical marijuana has been to manage pains. The drug has been realized as an efficient and effective way of reducing and handling chronic pain in a vast number of conditions. In the instances when it is meant to reduce pain, the most effective way of administration is by inhaling. Cannabis has also been proved to be effective in the treatment of peripheral neuropathy. The marijuana can also be used in the treatment of neurological problems, including epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and locomotive issues. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms can also be treated using medical cannabis.
The species of cannabis that are used for the medicinal purpose include cannabis sativa and cannabis indica. The plant cannabis has a total number of approximately four hundred and sixty compounds. Around eighty of these compounds contain chemical compounds that can react with the brain’s cannabinoid receptors. The main cannabinoid receptors that are responsive to a large number of the effects of cannabinoids are BB1 and CB2. These receptors are both found in the G protein-coupled receptors. The CB1 receptors are associated with psychoactive effects because they are located in the brain, while CB2 is responsible for pain modulation as they are located in the entire body. The absorption of cannabis in the body depends on the method that was used in its intake. If it is consumed through smoking, it is quickly delivered to the brain from the lungs. Oral administration, on the other hand, will require the longest time for the substance to be absorbed by the body. Similar to absorption, the distribution of cannabinoid across the body is also dependent on the modes of administration. The fastest absorption rates are associated with the administration methods of smoking and the inhalation of vaporized marijuana. If the marijuana is consumed orally, the absorption rate is low as the substance first has to undergo the metabolic processes of the body before it is finally absorbed into the body and distributed. With regards to the metabolisms of the substance, if the substance is inhaled or smoked, it is metabolized much faster than in the even that it is ingested. The ingested substance first has to be broken down, absorbed into the body, taken to the liver through the bloodstream, before eventually traveling to the brain then back to the liver. A majority of the metabolite is excreted in feces, rather than urine. This is mainly due to the large propensity of the HTC and CBD that undergoes metabolisms. After the product undergoes metabolism, there is the production of approximately thirty metabolites. Most of the metabolites are glucuronidation products. As a result, around 65 percent of the waste is excreted in feces, 25 percent through urine, and 10 percent through means such as sweating.
Marijuana has been proved to possess a wide range of negative side effects. As a result, the product has been outlawed across most of the countries in the world. However, alongside its negative effects, its medicinal values have been appreciated in some countries. There are countries that have outlawed its recreational use but embrace its medicinal importance under strict rules and observations. It is mainly used for preventing vomiting and nausea in patients undergoing chemotherapy, boosting appetite in HIV/AIDS patients and for managing pain. There are different ways through which it is introduced into the body, including inhalation, injection, and ingestion. The rates of its breakdown, absorption, metabolism, and excretion are all dependent on the methods through which it was administered to the body. Due to the adverse negative effects that marijuana has on the body, its usage for the medicinal purpose is only accepted if it is delivered by a qualified health practitioner. It is not administered continuously for the sake of minimizing cases of addiction.