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5 pages/≈1375 words
10 Sources
Literature & Language
Annotated Bibliography
English (U.S.)
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Corruption Epidemic in Nigerian Educational Systems (Annotated Bibliography Sample)


A DRAFT of your bibliography will be due IN CLASS on Wednesday, February 17. Please bring a PRINTED COPY of the sources you have collected, annotated, summarized, and reflected on that day.
I am expecting a minimum of 10 sources. 
My professor said we should write introduction of the topic before we start the annotated bibliography. Thanks for your usual cooperation.

Corruption Endemic in Nigerian Educational System
Nigeria is faced with the problem of endemic corruption in the education sector, and this has weakened the sector while affecting the quality of education. Poor government financing and weak institutional systems make it difficult to eradicate corrupt practices in the society. The value–based system that encourages corruption in the private and public sector has had a negative impact on the education system with corruption and ethical malpractice being tolerated. The most common forms of corrupt practices are examination malpractice, bribery, nepotism, corruption to obtain material gain and abusing authority among the education stakeholder is systematic when it is systemic rather than simply affecting a few individuals.
Olatunbosun, Basil. "Examination Malpractice In Secondary Schools In Nigeria: What Sustains It?." European Journal of Educational Studies 1.3 (2009).
In the article, the author examines how examination evaluation malpractice among Nigerian Schools is at times flawed, and t this compromises the quality of education. Examination malpractice is a form of corruption in the education sector that poses a risk to certification.Moral decadence, societal and peer influence, are conditions that influence examination malpractice in secondary schools. Olatunbosun further looks into reason as to why examination malpractice has been hard to eradicate, while also offering suggestions how to improve the examination process. The cheating culture from the political elites to the common has affected various phases of life including education, and the article points out the need to eradicate the menace.
Onyibe, C.O., Uma U. Uma., & Emmanuel Ibin. "Examination Malpractice in Nigeria: Causes and Effects on National Development." Journal of Education and Practice 6.26 (2015): 12-17.
The researchers also looked into the causes of examination practice and how different forms of exam cheating affected the society. Examination assessment provides a platform to determine whether he trainees have attained the set objectives and learned what is expected with the input of the trainers. The authors point out that stiff penalties against exam malpractice have had little effect on eradicating the vice. Bribing is one form of exam cheating where students and teachers collude or get access to examination materials before the actual exam time. Dubious admission policies, the craze for certificates and the parents push to get their children attain certain grades were identified as risk factors that led to examination malpractice. Typically, examination fraud is a symptom of the society where people seek instant gratification where people are not driven by hard work but using shortcuts to get what they want at any cost.
Enu, Donald Bette, and A. E. O. Esu. "Re-Engineering Values Education in Nigerian Schools as Catalyst for National Development." International Education Studies 4.1 (2011): 147-53.
Enu and Esu argue that erosion of values in the Nigerian society has negatively affected the education sector in the country and development, and there is a need to integrate a value-based education model in teaching and learning. Incidences of corruption, low moral courage and lack of accountability are symptoms of the country's education system failure to instill values. The link between education corruption and underperforming development cannot be ignored, and even the economic strategic plans are unlikely to be successful when corruption is deeply entrenched in the education system to the extent that honesty is viewed unfavorably by Nigerians. Hence, the researchers state that introducing a value-based education system would be necessary to meet the development goals where people behave in an ethical manner to a...
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