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2 pages/≈550 words
5 Sources
Literature & Language
Annotated Bibliography
English (U.S.)
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Inflation of the Grading System in American Learning Institutions Compared to European Institutions (Annotated Bibliography Sample)


Topic: Grades - In some European schools, fewer than 10% of students get As. Is there grade inflation in the U.S.? Why so many As for Americans?. This is the topic of my upcoming research paper, I just need to get 5 sources for this topic, and I have attached some files for more information.



1) Using the JSTOR and Muse databases, as well as the many books available in the library, collect a MINIMUM of five scholarly sources on your chosen topic to fuel your research papers.  When you have located and studied the resources, and have chosen at least five which could be potentially useful to you, make a Works Cited page, using perfect MLA formatting. Hint: use KnightCite or another citation generator.                                                                                               


2) Under each entry, describe the thesis or basic arguments of the source, and which parts specifically might be useful to your paper. Cite page numbers and/or paragraphs which you will want to use later. One to two paragraphs should be sufficient.


3) In view of where your early research has taken you, refine your topic choice and write your thesis statement as it would appear in your paper.


Remember:  abortion, capital punishment, gay marriage, and the president are OFF the table!

Inflation of the Grading System in American Learning Institutions Compared to European Institutions
Grade inflation, the tendency for a learning institution to award more A and B grades than C's and D's has become an issue of great concern in the U.S. education system. Study reports indicate that the grading in American institutions is greatly inflated. Critics of this trend argue that inflation is harmful to the education system because:
* It makes superior performance to lose value and become less desirable
* It creates ambiguity between average and high achievers because it is difficult to differentiate the two given the high number of A and B grades.
* It creates complications across major learning institutions in the ranking of students' performance.
In view of these concerns, and other studies indicating that U.S. students perform poorly in test scores compared to their Asian and European counterparts, it is clear that the American education system is losing in terms of quality. This suggests the need to implement educational reforms to make American education more valuable both domestically and internationally. This paper provides an annotated bibliography of previous studies and published articles that address this issue.
Barron's Educational Series, Inc. Profiles of American Colleges 2013. New York:
Barrons Educational Series, Inc. 2014. Print.
This article provides a list of American colleges that do not administer standard tests before admitting students. It labels such colleges “test optional” or “test flexible” because they do not emphasize the use of standard tests before accepting high school graduates seeking college admission (Barron's Educational Series 1). The author suggest that the failure to use SAT and ACT tests when admitting high school graduates is the first sign of the flexible grading system that will be applied when they finish college, hence the high number of A and B grades that do not necessarily reflect the college graduates' true competencies.
Carnoy, Martin, and Rothstein, Richard. What Do International Tests Really Show about
U.S. Student Performance? H Street NW, Washington: Economic Policy Institute. 2014. Print.
The authors of this article present a conflicting view regarding the poor performance of American learners in test scores. They observe that conclusions “drawn from international test comparisons” are misleading because they do not reflect the American learning environment and grading system, and “may lead policymakers to pursue inappropriate and harmful reforms” (Carnoy and Rothstein 6). Their argument suggests that there is no connec...
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