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3 pages/≈825 words
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Level:
Harvard
Subject:
Health, Medicine, Nursing
Type:
Thesis Proposal
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English (U.K.)
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Thesis proposal: Arabic gum and kidney (Thesis Proposal Sample)

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Thesis proposal: Arabic gum and kidney
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Introduction
Arabic gum is touted as an effective in treating chronic renal failure, but scientific evidence to attest these claims are few. There have been various studies on the effect of gum Arabic on rats, because the product has antioxidant properties. Hence, it has been suggested that it can be effective in reducing complications for patients with chronic kidney failure (Ali, Ziada, & Blunden 2009, p.3). The ability to lower high blood urea nitrogen (BUN) may help to alleviate uremic states especially when there is potential limit the accumulation of nitrogenous wastes. At the same time, administration of Arabic gum has been associated with a slow down in damage to kidney tubules (Omer, Ayed & El Badwi, 2013, p. 379). Arabic gum is a safe dietary fibre, but there is sill controversy on the effectiveness of GA in protecting against cardiac and renal toxicity (Nasir 2013, p. 269)
Background
According to (Nasir et al 2012, p. 368), the effects of GA in mice have direct implications for humans, as studies suggest that there is decrease of proteinuria. This result to delay in renal disease progression, while there is a decrease in plasma phosphate concentration and increase in creatinine clearance and they result to lower risk of renal complications especially for patients with diabetes (Al Mosawi 2007, p. 364). In any case, Arabic Gum (AG) is a cytoprotective agent that helps to reduce nephrotoxicity in rats’ mercury intoxication (Gado & Aldahmash 2013, p. 1249).
In a study conducted by Ali (2004, p.2), Arabic gum was reported to be ineffective against MG nephrotoxicity, and the author also question the supposed benefits of Arabic gum, since it was unlikely that that the anti-oxidant action was responsible for improved cases for chronic kidney failure patients. According to Ali, Alqarawi and Ahmed (2004), gum Arabic appears to have modest effects on rats with renal chronic failure. Arabic gum has slight effect on gentamycin (GM) nephrotoxicity, and understanding the mechanisms through which this affects renal function. (Ali et al (2003, p.19) and (Al-Kenanny., Al-Hayaly., & Al-Badrany, 2012, p. 178)
Arabic Gum is a form of fibre, and dietary fibre intake has health benefits including influencing blood sugar levels, and reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases (Kennedy, Phillips & Williams, 2011, p. 331). In the case of chronic kidney failure, there is reduced risk of inflammation and the chronic kidney disease is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, focusing on the effectiveness of Arabic gum on chronic kidney disease is critical to understanding how the product can indirectly reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In any case, food products that are high in fibre are associated with reduced levels of inflammation (Glover 2012, p.52).
Adenine can induce chronic renal failure, and such a scenario is potentially useful to understand the mechanisms through Arabic gum affects kidneys. Ali et al (2013 b, p.2),utilised a CRF model to study the impact of um Arabic on adenine- induced chronic renal failure , reporting that AG had the potential to reverse adverse effects associated with renal failure. Use of adenine results to increased concentrations of plasma creatinine and lower creatinine clearance, and AG reversed this trend. In order to evaluate nephrotoxicity, then the concentrations of creatinine need to be carried out in kidneys (Ali et al., 2013 a, p. 48).
Justification
In order to validate and test past hypotheses and anecdotal evidence on the impact of AG on kidneys, it is necessary to highlight on the aims and objectives of studies to be carried out a review of related literature will provide clues on the validity of studies carried...
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