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Eutrophication In Great Lakes: A Case Study Of Lake Erie (Term Paper Sample)


The prof has required us to hand in the case proposal, Annotated Bibliography, and outline in the previous week. And I got feedback from the prof, he required me to discuss different measures to reduce P loading (agricultural BMPs, improvements to sewer plants as well. So this term paper should have the keep the SAME intention and direction with the above three preparing steps. So please read these that I have uploaded these three. Thank you so much. The term paper has to include at least 5 peer-reviewed journal article citations, here is the instruction:
The case study must specifically address three elements of the chosen topic:
1.A review of what the causes of the water issue are. Your exploration should draw on natural and social science literature. For instance, continuing the water supply in Saudi Arabia example, you would need to mention that water supply in Saudia Arabia would always be short because it is a desert. If they use groundwater in Saudia Arabia you should mention this too. Also, why is there a supply issue – what is the water being used for? Does the energy industry use water? 
2.An exploration of the management and policy responses made about the water issue. Note that failures are important to document as well. For instance, you could explore efforts to augment supply by drilling deeper for groundwater, investing in desalination plants, or attempts to purchase water from other supplying nations.
3.An exploration of how the issue is likely to change in the future, given the existence of climate change, global growth of population, and global growth of the economy. Again, in the example of Saudi Arabia, climate change and population increases may drive water demand up, while groundwater supplies may dwindle (or not). 
The paper should adhere to consistent style guidelines. A standard font should be used (preferably Calibri or Times New Roman), size 12. Margins shall be 1 inch. Text shall be double spaced. Sections shall be differentiated with section headings (e.g. split the paper into sections and name them). As a starting point, I expect that the main three sections will address the three points raised above.
Your case study must be referenced in the APA style. Make sure to use the correct format of reference for each resource. Don't cite a book as you would a journal article.
Your paper must contain at least 5 recent (within 12 years) peer-reviewed journal article citations, and where appropriate should also include citations of nonacademic literature such as reports. Citations of books are also acceptable, but your paper should draw from the primary literature as much as possible. Internet sources are acceptable, though they should be treated critically. Wikipedia is not a valid source. Newspaper articles are acceptable to give context to the general attitude of your topic but are generally not a valid source of information. To put things in perspective, most newspaper articles will be less well researched than your case study. Journalists typically spend hours to days researching and writing an article, while you will spend far more time than that.


Eutrophication in Great Lakes: A Case Study of Lake Erie


Institutional Affiliation

Eutrophication in Great Lakes: A Case Study of Lake Erie


Increased conservation measures across the globe are focusing on increasing the protection and effective use of freshwater supplies. These efforts face numerous challenges. One of the persistent ones over the last half a century is the increased eutrophication of freshwater sources (Kane, Conroy, Richards, Baker, & Culver, 2014). The Laurentian Great Lakes of North America that include lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario hold about twenty percent of the total surface freshwater in the world (Ho & Michalak, 2015). These lakes are also of critical importance in sustaining ecosystems and for recreational and economic use. The Great Lakes have been facing challenges due to the overwhelming eutrophication and re-eutrophication in recent years. Eutrophication is important to the understanding of how the water body ecosystems change. It refers to the increase in plant life within the water bodies as a result of increased nutrients that trigger plant growth (Kane, Conroy, & Peter, 2014). Eutrophication is characterized by increased plant and algal growth. It has naturally occurred over the years as lakes aged and filled with sediments. Nevertheless, increased human activities in the 20th century accelerated the rate and extent of eutrophication. The key contributing factors have been point-source products and non-point loading of compounds such as nitrogen and phosphorus and to some extent introduction of foreign organisms in new aquatic environments (Ho & Michalak, 2015; Kane et al., 2014). Recent studies show that there are rapid changes being experienced in the Laurentian Great lakes systems. Most of the key changes has been in the quality of the lake water, increased phytoplankton, zooplankton, and benthos. These detrimental changes have been attributed to the invasive species, nutrient imbalances, and ecosystem changes as a result of eutrophication. These assessments have been instrumental in addressing the eutrophication of these lakes, but more efforts need to be done. The intent of this paper is to understand the eutrophication phenomenon in the Great Lakes through a case study of Lake Erie.

Problem Statement

An array of studies show that Lake Erie is a highly susceptible water body among the Laurentian Great Lakes (Ho & Michalak, 2015; Lu, Meyers, Eadie, & Robbins, 2010; Scavia et al., 2014). The major characteristics of the lake that put it at risks are its shallowness and warm temperatures. Subsequently, it is susceptible to eutrophication and changes in climate. In the recent past, there has been a substantial increase in eutrophication experienced on the lake with impaired water quality, large algal blooms, hypoxia, and death of fish. These consequences of eutrophication have increased attention on efforts to manage and reduce the external inputs of total phosphorus (TP) (Scavia et al., 2014). Nevertheless, there has been an increase in the proportion of bioavailable form of phosphorus and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP). These forms of phosphorus are identified as the main causes of eutrophication in the lake. Handling the challenge of eutrophication and re-eutrophication in the lake requires the engagement of various stakeholders, including governments and the local communities (Allinger & Reavie, 2013). Although there has been an increased focus on reducing the impact of eutrophication, there are new challenges emerging, especially due to re-eutrophication at Lake Erie (Michalak, Anderson, & Beletsky, 2013). Subsequently, there is a need to identify the weakness of the strategies in place and find sustainable solutions.


The general o...

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