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9 pages/≈2475 words
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APA
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Mathematics & Economics
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Term Paper
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English (U.S.)
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Topic:

Biological treatment of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) in petroleum sludge (Term Paper Sample)

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Introduction -state research question -provide context for question (above), why is research relevant Lit paper -who has talked about this -what did they do -what did they find -place your view in discipline, detail in opinion you agree or disagree with Methodology & data -what describing your approach (assumptions) Show finds or results & discussion -what did you find -was it expected or unexpected -table!!!! -what is the answer to the question Conclusion source..
Content:

Biological treatment of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) in petroleum sludge
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Biological treatment of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in petroleum sludge
Introduction
Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is a mixture many chemical compounds that originate from crude oil. The composition of these compounds is mostly hydrogen and carbon, hence the name hydrocarbons. TPH are harmful environmental pollutants and include toxic compounds such as benzene, pyrene, toluene, xylene, naphthalene among other petroleum components (Udochukwu, Njoku-Tony & Nwachukwu, 2012). Long-term exposure of these hazardous pollutants to soil and/or water leads to hydrocarbon contamination and they can enter the environment through different ways. Udochukwu, Njoku-Tony and Nwachukwu report that these compounds can be released accidentally to the environment for instance through industrial releases, private or industrial by products (2012). Upon entering to the soil, TPH leads to soil degradation and infertility by causing deficiency in soil nutrients required for a healthy crop growth and also changes soil acidity. Moreover, TPH compounds can also contaminate drinking water. Therefore, this study was conducted to find out how TPH can be biologically treated to help eliminate its hazardous impacts to the environment.
Das and Chandran (2010) state that fungi, yeast and bacteria microorganisms naturally biodegrade hydrocarbons in the environment. They add that yeast species such as Candida maltose, Candida tropicalis as well as Candida apicola contain extraordinary enzymes which primarily rely on hydrocarbons such as TPH for carbon and energy. This dependence upon carbon and energy enables the microorganisms to biodegrade the hydrocarbon compounds contained in TPH and by so doing, they help to eliminate the pollutants from the environment.
This study focuses primarily on how naturally occurring bacteria biodegrade TPH in soils that have been contaminated with petroleum sludge. The focus on bacteria is because among the many microorganisms, bacteria are the ones most actively involved in the petroleum degradation processes, and some bacteria species purely feed on hydrocarbon compounds hence help in cleaning up areas with oil spills (Das & Chandran, 2010).
The research question
Is it possible to reduce environmental hydrocarbon contamination through biological treatment of TPH in petroleum sludge? If yes, how?
Oil spills and accidental leaks occur more often today primarily due to the many activities in the petrochemical industry such as oil exploration, production, refining, storage and even transportation. According to Das and Chandran, the entry of TPH compounds into the environment is the primary cause of soil and water pollution (2010). Currently, the main methods of eliminating TPH from the soil and water bodies is through methods such as burying and washing, which have proved to be much co...
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