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5 pages/≈1375 words
5 Sources
Health, Medicine, Nursing
Term Paper
English (U.S.)
MS Word
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The positive effects of exercise on individuals with Parkinson's disease. (Term Paper Sample)


1) My area of interest is: Increasing moderate exercise in individuals with Parkinson's disease may be an effective non-pharmacologic approach to decreasing neuropsychiatric symptoms and improving the quality of life in these patients. 2) PLEASE PLEASE review the instructions below carefully. It is taken out of my syllabus and he gives us the exact format as to how he wants it written. Please use this newspaper article: http://health(dot)usnews(dot)com/health-news/news/articles/2012/11/09/exercise-a-likely-tool-for-parkinsons-patients If you can find something more suitable, please feel free to use another newspaper article. SYLLABUS: Health Psychology Written Assignment. You are required to submit one written assignment (5-6 pages) during the course. This assignment is designed to help you think more critically about the topics we discuss in the course in an insightful way. The goal of the written assignment is to examine and review a particular area of interest within the field of health psychology and to make insightful conclusions regarding this topic. Your paper will be based on a newspaper or magazine article on a topic related to health psychology that appeared in print or online since January 2012. For example, a recent headline in an online news forum read, “Scientists demonstrate the connection between stress and cancer.” This would be a suitable topic. The newspaper or magazine article is to be used as a “jumping off” point for your paper and should only be discussed and referenced in the introduction and discussion sections. The body of your paper will then be used to review relevant research (minimum 5 articles) related to the topic in order to make clearer conclusions about the original article. Topics must include both a health component and a psychosocial component or be directly applicable to health psychology to qualify. The paper should be organized as follows: Start with an overview of the topic discussed in the newspaper or magazine article. What is the specific aspect of the article that you will focus on in more detail? Provide a background to the topic and identify the goals and purpose of your paper (approx. 1page). Using the findings from at least 5 empirical, peer-reviewed articles, discuss the issue in more depth (these articles are in addition to the newspaper/magazine article). For example, you might choose 3 articles arguing one side of the topic and another 3 articles arguing a different perspective. Or, all articles may be on the same side, but offering slightly different points about the main topic (approx. 3-4 pages). Your conclusions on the topic should be based on the literature you reviewed and discussed, noting implications, common limitations in the field, areas of improvement, and suggestions for future research. In cases where topics involve controversy or debate, you should also make a firm conclusion regarding which “side” or perspective is the strongest based on the research you reviewed (approx. 1 page). The written assignment must be typed, double-spaced, in 12-point Times New Roman or similar font, and 5-6 pages in length. This is not including your title page and reference section. It must also adhere to all APA formatting guidelines as outlined in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition (APA, 2009), with the exception of an Abstract. Please do not include an abstract in your written assignment (it will be ignored). You must reference a minimum of 5 primary source scholarly articles from peer-reviewed academic journals. These articles must be relevant to the area/field of interest. Given that your paper is addressing a 4recent topic in the media, only recent literature should be reviewed (2010 onward; some exceptions may apply, particularly in the case of landmark or key papers in the field). Primary source articles are those which present original findings for the first time (and do not include review articles or meta-analyses, although these may be used in addition to your 5 primary sources). First person perspective and direct quoting should be avoided. You must also attach a printout or photocopy of the newspaper/magazine article. Do not include copies of journal articles reviewed. Your paper will be graded on such things as writing style, grammar and punctuation, organization, critical thinking and reasoning, insightfulness and originality of thought, comprehensiveness, quality of cited references, and adherence to APA formatting. Your written assignment should be at a level which is representative of a 300 level course and should reflect a high degree of critical thinking.


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Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative condition that involves the malfunction and eventual death of important nerve cells in the brain. Some of the decaying neurons in the brain produce a chemical dopamine which transmits information to the brain that controls movement and coordination. The article "exercise a likely tool for Parkinson's patients" as reported by Steven Reinberg admits that patients can greatly improve their muscle strength and fitness levels if they engage themselves in moderate exercises. The report is based on research findings by researchers in the field of neuroscience such as Dr. Shulman and Dr. Dorsey advocate for treadmill training and resistance exercise help in improving mobility of the patients and in improving their own personal health. From the sample of 67 patients with Parkinson's disease, the results of the low intensity exercise improved their walking distance by 12 % while the high intensity increased by 6 %. They therefore concluded that patients with Parkinson's disease would require an administration of a moderate low level exercise that will improve their cardio vascular fitness. The additional treatment available to these patients has been reported to improve the motor functions through deep brain simulation in which the use of wires to supply current to the brain is applied. This would improve motor functions for a period of 3 years for patients with advance Parkinson's disease.
This paper focuses on finding supportive evidence based facts that support the advocating of physical exercises and deep brain simulation techniques as non pharmacological means of decreasing neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease. The paper will mostly base on recent information and research that support the technique and give a conclusion.
Diagnosis of Parkinson's disease that is based on exhibited symptoms involves the conduction of tests such as neuroimaging which depends on scanning of the neurons of the brain by using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scans. This is done to confirm the presence of absence of the disease on suspected patients of the Parkinson's disease. In treating the disease, most effective treatments involve early management of motor symptoms of the disease by administering medications such as levodopa and dopamine agonists. But with the progression of the diseases, these drugs usually tend to be less effective, as such, a complex complication arise in form of dyskinesia which is characterized by some involuntary physical movements. In reducing these symptoms, proper diet management and other forms of rehabilitation have been effective in combating the writhing movements.
Zakria (2013) identifies Parkinson's diseases as a motor syndrome whose main symptoms include slowing of movement, tremor at rest, ...
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