# Introduction to Probability Theory & Health Statistics (Statistics Project Sample)

Module 1 - Case

INTRODUCTION TO PROBABILITY THEORY AND HEALTH STATISTICS

Case Assignment

Part 1 (approximately 1–1.5 pages, total):

Copy and paste the following examples (A–F below) , then respond by classifying each of the following variables as either: nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio. Provide a brief explanation where indicated.

A researcher studying lifespan categorizes individuals into single, married, divorced, or widowed. What type of variable measurement is this?

A cognitive scientist places her subjects into categories based on how anxious they tell her that they are feeling: “not anxious”, “mildly anxious”, “moderately anxious” and “severely anxious”, and she uses the numbers 0, 1, 2 and 3 to label categories where lower numbers indicate less anxiety. What type of variable measurement is this? Are the categories mutually exclusive?

A Physician diagnoses the presence or absence of disease (i.e. yes or no). What type of variable measurement is this?

A person weighing 200 lbs. is considered to be twice as heavy as a person weighing 100 lbs. In this case, what type of measurement is body weight?

A nurse takes measurements of body temperature on patients and reports them in units of degrees Farenheit as part of a study. What type of variable measurement is this?

Patients rate their experience in the emergency room on a five point scale from poor to excellent ( 1 = very poor, 2 = not very good, 3 = neither good nor bad, 4 = quite good, and 5 = excellent). What type of variable measurement is this? Is the difference between a 1 and a 2 necessarily the same as the difference between a 3 and a 4? Explain briefly.

Part 2: Statistics (1/2 page)

Given what you’ve learned in this module about the meaning of “statistics”, choose one of the examples from Part I (A-F), and raise a relevant question of your own that could be answered by a statistician. Then without answering your own question, explain how a pattern could be studied or a useful prediction made based on data that are to be collected.

Part 3: Quantitative vs. Qualitative Data (approximately 1–1.5 pages)

A health scientist wishes to measure how well participants diagnosed with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder are coping. Explain how a variable such as coping could be measured quantitatively or qualitatively.

Assignment Expectations

Use the information in the modular background readings as well as resources you find through ProQuest or other online sources. Please be sure to cite all sources and provide a reference list at the end of the paper. Submit the paper as a Word document through the link provided for the assignment.

Length: 2–3 pages typed and double-spaced.

Introduction to Probability Theory and Heath Statistics

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Part A

A researcher studying lifespan categorizes individuals into single, married, divorced, or widowed. What type of variable measurement is this?

This is a nominal scale measurement, since the observations can be classified depending on marital status, based on whether the participants are single, married divorce or widowed. In any case, the classifications do not have natural order or measurement involved (McGraw-Hill, n.d.).A cognitive scientist places her subjects into categories based on how anxious they tell her that they are feeling: “not anxious”, “mildly anxious”, “moderately anxious” and “severely anxious”, and she uses the numbers 0, 1, 2 and 3 to label categories where lower numbers indicate less anxiety. What type of variable measurement is this? Are the categories mutually exclusive?

This is ordinal level data since there are differences that can be compared to other data points (McGraw-Hill, n.d). Nonetheless, it is not possible to measure the magnitude of these differences, but there are also rankings and ratings (Norman & Streiner, 2008). In this case, the subjects rate their anxious feelings from not anxious to severely anxious. The categories are mutually exclusive, as each participant can only choose one category and it is also exhaustive.A Physician diagnoses the presence or absence of disease (i.e. yes or no). What type of variable measurement is this?

This is nominal level data, where observations are dependent on whether the disease is present. As such classification is dependent on presence and absence of the disease as either ‘yes’ or ‘no’. Each participant is included in one of the two categories since the measurement is mutually exclusive. A person weighing 200 lbs. is considered to be twice as heavy as a person weighing 100 lbs. In this case, what type of measurement is body weight?

This is a ratio variable and is similar to an interval variable but the 0 point is meaningful (McGraw-Hill, n.d). Since the weight of 200 lbs is twice that of a 100 lbs person, the ratio measurement gives the ratio for the two measurements as 2:1.A nurse takes measurements of body temperature on patien...

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