# Descriptive Statistics Part II: Central Tendency and Variability (Statistics Project Sample)

Module 3 - Case

Descriptive Statistics Part II: Central Tendency and Variability

Case Assignment

Briefly discuss the concept of mode, mean, median. What is it? How is it calculated? When would we use each one?

Following are the resting pulses of subjects, reported in beats per minute. Calculate the mean resting pulse, rounded to the nearest beat. Be sure to show your work.

60 53 58 48 56 50 62 51 52

A hospital kept track of the birth weights of babies measured in grams. The results are shown below.

2824 2973 3015 3025 3041 3102 3189

Find the median birth weight in grams. Provide an interpretation of your results.

Last year, ten former employees of a company passed away. Their ages at death are listed below.

79 75 72 55 66 80 77 79 68 70

Find the Mode. Provide an interpretation of your results.

### Case Assignment Expectations

Use the information in the modular background readings as well as resources you find through ProQuest or other online sources. Please be sure to cite all sources and provide a reference list at the end of the paper. Submit the paper as a Word document through the link provided for the assignment.

Length: 2–3 pages typed and double-spaced.

Your Case paper will be further evaluated based on the following criteria:

**Precision** (Excellent; Good; Average; Poor)

- Each question and or assignment requirement is addressed in the paper.
- Accuracy of your answers, key points and supporting discussion

**Clarity** (Excellent; Good; Average; Poor)

- The paper is well organized, concise, reads clearly, and it is not confusing.

**Breadth** (Excellent; Good; Average; Poor)

- The paper presents appropriate breadth covering the assignment questions/requirements.

**Depth** (Excellent; Good; Average; Poor)

- Presents key points that lead to deeper matters and issues.
- Integrates several points into coherent conclusions.

**Critical Thinking** (Excellent; Good; Average; Poor)

- The paper demonstrates good understanding and synthesis of the module background material.
- Logically incorporates key concepts presented in the background material into the overall analyses, key points and supporting discussions.
- Presents well-reasoned conclusions and position as well as convincing arguments in support of the same.

**Writing Mechanics**

- Grammar (Excellent; Good; Average; Poor)
- Spelling (Excellent; Good; Average; Poor)
- Vocabulary (Excellent; Good; Average; Poor)
- Referencing (Excellent; Good; Average; Poor)

Additional considerations to keep in mind while working on your Case Assignments:

**Originality and Use of directly quoted material**

- The purpose of each assignment is for you to present your understanding and synthesis of the background material and key concepts. Accordingly, this must be accomplished substantially in your own words.
- Use directly quoted material sparingly and only when preserving the exact words of an author is necessary. For purposes of this course, rarely should directly quoted material represent more than 5 percent to 10 percent of your entire case paper’s content. Composing a paper patched together from mostly quoted material is not acceptable.
- Be sure to properly reference all directly quoted material and include the in-text citations. All paraphrased information also requires reference citations at the end of the paraphrased section.

**Grades**

- A paper that answers all assignments questions and supports the answer with good key points, well-supported discussions and quality references will earn a solid “B” grade.
- “A” papers are exceptional works that go beyond just answering the questions and provide insightful answers.

Central Tendency and Variability

Name

University

Central Tendency

It is useful to represent a large data set with single values that describe the average or the middle value of the set. In descriptive statistics, the individual values are called the central tendency and. Mode, mean and median constitute the central tendency.

Mean

Arithmetic mean of a set of variables; it is the sum of all variables divided by their number contributing to that sum. Mathematically it is expressed as,

Equation 1: Mean=XN

where X are the observed variable and N is their number.

For example in the following set of data representing the record of pulse rate of patients in beats per minute; 60 53 58 48 56 50 62 51 52, the mean is calculated to the nearest heart beats per minute as follows using equation 1 above.

Mean=60+53+58+48+56+50+62+519=54.44â‰€55 beats per minute

This formula is used when we have a listing of data. The mean allows us to interpret information without having to know the number of particular observations in the distribution. It can be used when we have either discrete or continuous data, although most often it is used with continuous data. It is also used when we desire to include every value in a data set in the calculation.

Mode

The mode is the most recurrently occurring variable in a distribution. It can be determined simply by observation. We find the mode by determining the highest frequency of occurrence of the variable in a given set of data. It is used whe...

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